The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

Join us on Facebook

AEGOPODIUM. Ground-elder. [Apiaceae]


The introduced Ground-elder (A. podagraria) is the only species of Aegopodium recorded in Britain.

Nine British miners (8 Diptera and 1 Lepidoptera) are recorded on Aegopodium.

A key to the European miners recorded on Aegopodium is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
Diptera recorded on Aegopodium


Note: Diptera larvae may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, or a blotch mine, but never in a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Pupation never in a cocoon. All mining Diptera larvae are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue. In some corridor miners frass may lie in two rows on alternate sides of the mine. In order to vacate the mine the fully grown larva cuts an exit slit, which is usually semi-circular (see Liriomyza huidobrensis video). The pupa is formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

See Key to non-Diptera.


1a > Leaf-miner: Larva forms an upper surface primary blotch with several larvae feeding together; the blotch is greenish when fresh but becomes yellowish with age (Spencer, 1972b: 78 (fig. 257); Spencer, 1976: 376, 377 (fig. 655)).

Round or oval blotch, green at first, later yellowish. Young mine are interparenchymatous, only the older mines are truly full depth. Generally several larvae in a communal mine. Pupation outside the mine. Exit slit in lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A conspicuous, yellowish, almost circular upper surface blotch. Normally several mines on a leaf which may run together giving the impression of a single mine (British leafminers).

On Aegopodium and Angelica in Britain and elsewhere and Laserpitium elsewhere. Widespread throughout Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in U.S.A. and Canada.

Phytomyza angelicae Kaltenbach, 1872 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: A large primary blotch, sometimes several larvae feeding together with frass scattered irregularly throughout the mine; leaves often being largely destroyed and the plants suffering considerable damage. Puparium dull brown

On Aquilegia and Thalictrum, but not yet on Aegopodium, in Britain. On Aegopodium, Aquilegia and Thalictrum elsewhere. Common in southern Britain particularly in gardens. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland, Europe. Range extending eastwards to the Kirghiz and Kazakh Republics of the [former] U.S.S.R.

Phytomyza aquilegiae Hardy, 1849 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1c > Leaf-miner: A large blotch, yellow or brown, preceded by a short corridor that in the end mostly is completely overrun. Generally several larvae share a mine. Especially in fresh mines the green primary and secondary feeding lines are well visible. Pupation outside the mine.

Hering (1957a) warns that the mines cannot be separated from those of the rare Cryptaciura rotundiventris (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine is deep and leads to a blotch, which is usually coloured yellow or brown (British leafminers)

Euleia heraclei puparia
Euleia heraclei pupariria
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Polyphagous. On numerous genera of Apiaceae and possibly some Asteraceae, but not yet on Aegopodium, in Britain. On numerous genera of Apiaceae, including Aegopodium, and possibly some Asteraceae elsewhere. Throughout the British Isles. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and most of the rest of the Palaearctic region, as far east as Afghanistan.

Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus, 1758) [Diptera: Tephritidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: Larva forming an irregular upper surface linear mine, which can widen and become almost blotch like at end (Spencer, 1972b: 78 (fig. 262), 81; Spencer, 1976: 378, 379 (fig. 657)).

Upper-surface blotch, often following the leaf margin for some length, finally strongly widened. The real start of the mine, however, is a long narrow epidermal corridor in the lower surface of the leaf, made by the first instar larva (Allen, 1956a). Pupation outside the mine, exit slit generally in the leaf lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

An upper surface mine, which can widen and form a blotch (British leafminers).

On Aegopodium, Angelica and Pastinaca in Britain and Aegopodium and Angelica elsewhere. Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in Ireland and Continental Europe.

Phytomyza angelicastri Hering, 1923 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1e > Leaf-miner: Mine irregularly linear, whitish green normally adjoining margin of leaf, when old brownish (Spencer, 1972b: 89 (fig. 304), 92; Spencer, 1976: 461, 463 (fig. 808).

An upper-surface, strongly widening corridor, often following the leaf margin for some distance, with much blackish green, deliquescent frass in its centre. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mine irregularly linear, whitish green normally adjoining margin of leaf, when old brownish (British leafminers).

On Aegopodium in Britain and elsewhere. Common in Britain, at least in south. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and continental Europe, range extending eastwards to the northern Kirghiz Republic of the [former] U.S.S.R.

Phytomyza obscurella Fallén, 1823 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1f > Leaf-miner: A short, narrow, linear mine, generally closely following margin of leaf segment; in very small sections of a leaf producing a secondary blotch (Spencer, 1972b: 89 (fig. 302), 92; Spencer, 1976: 401 (fig. 702), 402).

Upper-surface corridor, in the end widening so strongly that within the limited space of an umbelliferous leaf often a secondary blotch is the result. The upper-surface mine is preceded by a short lower-surface corridor, made by the first instar larva during the first part of this stage (Allen, 1956a). It is difficult to observe, also because it tends to follow the leaf margin. Frass in two untidy rows of isolated grains. Before pupation the larva leaves the mine through a semicircular exit slit in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

A narrow mine, follows leaf marginand forms secondary blotches (British leafminers).

Phytomyza chaerophylli puparium
Phytomyza chaerophylli puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Anthriscus, Chaerophyllum, Conopodium, Daucus, Torilis and possibly Sison, but not yet on Aegopodium in Britain and additional Apiaceae, including Aegopodium, elsewhere. Common and widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and widespread and common throughout much of Europe.

Phytomyza chaerophylli Kaltenbach, 1856 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1g > Leaf-miner: A large blotch, yellow or brown, preceded by a short, in the end mostly unrecognisable corridor. Generally several larvae in the mine. Especially in fresh mines the green primary and feeding lines area well marked. Pupation outside the mine.

On Angelica and possibly Arctium and Heracleum, but not yet on Aegopodium, in Britain. On Aegopodium, Angelica, Laserpitium and Pimpinella elsewhere. Widespread but very rare in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and throughout continental Europe, except in the south.

Cryptaciura rotundiventris (Fallén, 1814) [Diptera: Tephritidae].



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
non-Diptera recorded on Aegopodium


Note: The larvae of mining Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera may live in a corridor mine, a corridor-blotch mine, a blotch mine, a case, a rolled or folded leaf, a tentiform mine or sandwiched between two more or less circular leaf sections in later instars. Larva may pupate in a silk cocoon. The larva may have six legs (although they may be reduced or absent), a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding). Larvae of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera usually also have abdominal legs (see examples). Frass, if present, never in two rows. Unless feeding externally from within a case the larva usually vacates the mine by chewing an exit hole. Pupa with visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).


1a > Leaf-miner: In the first instar the larva mines the leaves, forming short, irregular, blotch-like mines, but in later instars it lives externally, feeding in spun leaves and often twisting those of tender shoots. Larval head light-brown or yellowish brown, edged with black postero-laterally, ocellar area blackish; prothoracic plate black edged with whitish anteriorly; abdomen dull dark green; pinacula distinct, black, sometimes brownish but with black bases to setae; anal plate large, black (Bradley et al., 1973). Small, full depth mine without a definite shape; little frass. Some silk is deposited in the mine. The larva soon leaves the mine and continues feeding among spun leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Polyphagous. On numerous genera and species of plant families, but not yet on Aegopodium, in Britain. On numerous genera and species of plant families including Aegopodium elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded from the Channel Is.

Cnephasia incertana (Treitschke, 1835) [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae].
1b > Leaf-miner: The larvae are often gregarious and feed on the underside of the leaf causing a 'windowing' effect as they eat the mesophyll and lower epidermis. This effect can be seen from the top of the leaf as it discolours (British leafminers). Short, small, irregular, sometimes widened corridor. Mostly a number in a leaf, concentrated in the axils of the midrib and the primary side veins. Each larva makes a number of mines. Often the larva protrudes with its rear end out of the mine, causing most frass to be ejected. While moving, at the leaf underside, silken threads are produced, in wich grains of frass may be trapped. Older larvae live free and cause window feeding, often in a group under a light spinning (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Polyphagous. On Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus sylvestris, Daucus carota, Heracleum sphondylium and Heracleum sativa, but not yet on Aegopodium, in Britain. On Aegopodium podagraria, Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis, Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus caucalis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Anthriscus sylvestris, Apium graveolens, Berula erecta, Carum carvi, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Chaerophyllum temulum, Cicuta virosa, Conium maculatum, Daucus carota, Heracleum sphondylium, Levisticum officinale, Oenanthe, Pastinaca sativa, Peucedanum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Seseli libanotis, Silaum, Sium latifolium, Sison amomum and Torilis elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Epermenia chaerophyllella (Goeze, 1783) [Lepidoptera: Epermeniidae].
 

Galls recorded on Aegopodium (British Plant Gall Society, January 2012) with links to Leafminers and plant galls of Europe
Trioza flavipennis Förster, 1848 Hemiptera: Psylloidea
Plasmopara nivea (Unger) Schröter, 1889 Plasmodiophorida: Plasmodiophoraceae
Puccinia aegopodii (Schumacher) Link, 1817 Uredinales: Pucciniaceae
Protomyces macrosporus Unger, 1834 Protomycetales: Protomycetaceae


XHTML Validator Last updated 29-Jul-2016  Brian Pitkin Top of page