aquilegiae Hardy, 1849
aquilegiae Hardy, 1849a. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (2)
Phytomyza aquilegiae Hardy, 1849a; Hendel, 1934. Fliegen
palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 348
Phytomyza aquilegiae Hardy, 1849a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk
ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 10, 71, 82, 83 (fig. 268),
Phytomyza aquilegiae Hardy, 1849a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna
ent. Scand. 5 (1): 380-1, figs 661-663A, 902B
Phytomyza aquilegiae Hardy, 1849a; Spencer, 1990. Host
specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera): 22, 43,
46 (figs 171-2), 50
Phytomyza aquilegiae Hardy, 1849a; Bland, 2000. Dipterists
Digest 7: 11.
forming a large primary blotch, sometimes several larvae feeding
together with frass scattered irregularly throughout the mine; leaves
often being largely destroyed and the plants suffering considerable
damage (Spencer, 1976: 380,
381 (fig. 663A)).
large, somewhat inflated, upper-surface, often purple-brown blotch
without a preceding corridor. The mine is unusual because locally
also the spongy mesophyl is eaten away, making the mine locally
full depth and giving it a mottled appearance (right picture below).
The mine begins in the centre of the leaf, or the base of a leaf
segment (Griffiths, 1956b). The very first part of the mine differs
in colour and structure; probably it is made by the larvae before
its first ecdysis. Frass in very fine grains scattered over the
floor of the mine. Pupation outside the mine. Exit slit in upper
epidermis (Pakalniskis, 2004a) - see Bladmineerders van Europa.
A large blotch is formed, sometimes by several larvae, on the upper surface of the leaf. Frass is found scattered throughout the mine (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by de Meijere (1925)
and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Dull brown, deeply segmented; posterior spiracles each with an ellipse
of up to 20 bulbs (Spencer, 1976:
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: June-September.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Common in south particularly
in gardens (Spencer, 1972b:
82) including Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins,
1991: 28); East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Linlithgow,
South Essex (VC18), Surrey (VC17), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
recorded on Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris), 12 June 1985
at Castlecurragh, Co. Limerick, Ireland (H.C.J. Godfray).
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark,
Finland, Norway (Spencer, 1976:
380), Belgium (de Bruyn
and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Czech Republic, French mainland, Lithuania, Poland,
Romania, Slovakia and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
extending eastwards to the Kirghiz and Kazakh Republics of the [former]
U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976:
to aquilegiae in North America have all proven inaccurate
(Spencer, 1976: 380).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: