The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza chaerophylli Kaltenbach, 1856
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza chaerophylli Kaltenbach, 1856. Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl. 13: 226
Phytomyza anthrisci Hendel, 1924. Konowia 3: 144
Phytomyza coniophila Hering, 1931b. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten (Pflanzenpathologie) und Pflanzenschutz 41: 534
Phytomyza conopodii Hering, 1943. EOS 19: 56
Phytomyza chaerophylli Kaltenbach, 1856; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 71, 89 (figs 301-2), 92, 120, 121
Phytomyza chaerophylli Kaltenbach, 1856; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 400-2, figs 701-2.
Phytomyza chaerophylli Kaltenbach, 1856; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 159, 160, 165, 166 (figs 602-3), 167, 169, 177, 399.


Leaf-mine: A short, narrow, linear mine, generally closely following margin of leaf segment; in very small sections of a leaf producing a secondary blotch (Spencer, 1972b: 89 (fig. 302), 92; Spencer, 1976: 401 (fig. 702), 402).

Upper-surface corridor, in the end widening so strongly that within the limited space of an umbelliferous leaf often a secondary blotch is the result. The upper-surface mine is preceded by a short lower-surface corridor, made by the first instar larva during the first part of this stage (Allen, 1956a). It is difficult to observe, also because it tends to follow the leaf margin. Frass in two untidy rows of isolated grains. Before pupation the larva leaves the mine through a semicircular exit slit in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

A narrow mine, follows leaf marginand forms secondary blotches (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Allen (1957b, as anthrisci, conopodii, tordylii) and de Meijere (1926, as anthrisci) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. posterior spiracles with 16-22 bulbs.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. Shining black; posterior spiracles each with 16-20 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 402).

Phytomyza chaerophylli puparium
Phytomyza chaerophylli puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Anthriscus       Mines in BMNH
Anthriscus       Robbins, 1991: 64
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Chaerophyllum       British leafminers
Chaerophyllum       Robbins, 1991: 64
Chaerophyllum temulum Rough Chervil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Chaerophyllum temulum Rough Chervil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
Conopodium       Mines in BMNH
Conopodium majus Pignut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Conopodium majus Pignut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
Daucus       Robbins, 1991: 68
Daucus carota Carrot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Daucus carota Carrot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 24
Daucus carota Carrot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
? Sison amomum Stone Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
? Torilis japonica Upright Hedge-parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
Torilis japonica Upright Hedge-parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 64

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Aegopodium       Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthriscus       Spencer, 1990: 159
Anthriscus caucalis Bur Chervil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Anthriscus neglecta

Anthriscus cerefolium Garden Chervil   Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthriscus nemorosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 401
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Bifora       Bladmineerders van Europa
Bifora       Spencer, 1990: 159
Bifora       Bladmineerders van Europa
? Carum       Spencer, 1976: 401
Carum       Spencer, 1990: 159
Carum carvi Caraway British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chaerophyllum       Spencer, 1976: 401
Chaerophyllum       Spencer, 1990: 159
Chaerophyllum aromaticum Broad-leaved Chervil   Bladmineerders van Europa
Chaerophyllum aureum Golden Chervil   Bladmineerders van Europa
Chaerophyllum bulbosum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Chaerophyllum hirsutum Hairy Chervil   Bladmineerders van Europa
Chaerophyllum temulum Rough Chervil British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Conium       Spencer, 1990: 159
Conium maculatum Hemlock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 401
Conium maculatum Hemlock   Bladmineerders van Europa
Conopodium       Spencer, 1990: 159
Conopodium majus Pignut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Conopodium majus Pignut British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 401
? Daucus       Spencer, 1976: 401
Daucus       Spencer, 1990: 160
Daucus carota Carrot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myrrhis odorata Sweet Cicely British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Oenanthe aquatica Fine-leaved Water-dropwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Orlaya       Spencer, 1990: 159
Orlaya grandiflora Large-flowered Orlaya   Bladmineerders van Europa
Selinum       Spencer, 1990: 160
? Sison       Spencer, 1976: 401
Sison       Spencer, 1990: 160
Sison amomum Stone Parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Torilis       Spencer, 1976: 401
Torilis       Spencer, 1990: 160
Torilis japonica Upright Hedge-parsley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: April-July, November. First generation mines normally in April, but larvae can be found feeding throughout the winter.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Common and widespread throughout Britain (Spencer, 1972b: 92) including Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 64) and Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992); Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Flintshire (VC51), Hertfordshire (VC20), Middlesex (VC21), North-east Yorkshire (VC62), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), South-west Yorkshire and Surrey (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea). See NDBC interactive map.

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phytomyza chaerophylli
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread and common throughout much of Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Denmark (Spencer, 1976: 401), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 570), Austria, ? Corsica, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Sweden and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus caucalis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Chaerophyllum aureum, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Chaerophyllum temulum, Conium maculatum, Conopodium majus, Daucus carota, Myrrhis odorata, Oenanthe aquatica, Orlaya grandiflora, Sison amomum, Torilis japonica

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pallipes (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Atormus victus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius singularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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