The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

 

TORILIS. Hedge-parsleys. [Apiaceae]


Seven species of Torilis are recorded in Britain. These include the native Upright Hedge-parsley (T. japonica), Knotted Hedge-parsley (T. nodosa) and Spreading Hedge-parsley (T. arvensis).

Four British miners are recorded on Torilis.

The agromyzid Melanagromyza sativae bores the stems of Torilis and other Apiaceae in Britain and elsewhere.

 

Upright Hedge-parsley - Torilis japonica. Image: © Linda Pitkin
Upright Hedge-parsley
Torilis japonica



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Torilis


1a > Leaf-miner: A short, narrow, linear mine, generally closely following margin of leaf segment; in very small sections of a leaf producing a secondary blotch (Spencer, 1972b: 89 (fig. 302), 92; Spencer, 1976: 401 (fig. 702), 402).

Upper-surface corridor, in the end widening so strongly that within the limited space of an umbelliferous leaf often a secondary blotch is the result. The upper-surface mine is preceded by a short lower-surface corridor, made by the first instar larva during the first part of this stage (Allen, 1956a). It is difficult to observe, also because it tends to follow the leaf margin. Frass in two untidy rows of isolated grains. Before pupation the larva leaves the mine through a semicircular exit slit in the lower epidermis.

A narrow mine, follows leaf marginand forms secondary blotches.

Phytomyza chaerophylli puparium
Phytomyza chaerophylli puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Anthriscus, Chaerophyllum, Conopodium, Daucus, Torilis and possibly Sison in Britain and additional Apiaceae elsewhere. Common and widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and widespread and common throughout much of Europe.

Phytomyza chaerophylli Kaltenbach, 1856 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: Young larvae make small, full depth blotch mines, almost without frass. Older larva live externally on the plant under a light web . Initially forms a small blotch mine and may later feed in a slight web. In coastal areas may continue mining throughout the larval stage .

On Daucus carota and Pimpinella saxifraga, but not yet on Torilis, in Britain and Anthriscus caucalis, Athamanta cretensis, Daucus carota, Meum athamanticum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Thapsia villosa and Torilis arvensis subsp. neglecta elsewhere. East Cornwall, Isle of Wight and West Cornwall and Britain. Widespread in continental Europe.

Epermenia aequidentellus (Hofmann, 1867) [Lepidoptera: Epermeniidae].

1c > Leaf-miner: The larvae are often gregarious and feed on the underside of the leaf causing a 'windowing' effect as they eat the mesophyll and lower epidermis. This effect can be seen from the top of the leaf as it discolours . Short, small, irregular, sometimes widened corridor. Mostly a number in a leaf, concentrated in the axils of the midrib and the primary side veins. Each larva makes a number of mines. Often the larva protrudes with its rear end out of the mine, causing most frass to be ejected. While moving, at the leaf underside, silken threads are produced, in wich grains of frass may be trapped. Older larvae live free and cause window feeding, often in a group under a light spinning.

Polyphagous. On Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus sylvestris, Daucus carota, Heracleum sphondylium and Heracleum sativa, but not yet on Torilis, in Britain and Aegopodium podagraria, Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis, Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus caucalis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Anthriscus sylvestris, Apium graveolens, Berula erecta, Carum carvi, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Chaerophyllum temulum, Cicuta virosa, Conium maculatum, Daucus carota, Heracleum sphondylium, Levisticum officinale, Oenanthe, Pastinaca sativa, Peucedanum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Seseli libanotis, Sium latifolium, Sison amomum and Torilis elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Epermenia chaerophyllella (Goeze, 1783) [Lepidoptera: Epermeniidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: A large blotch, yellow or brown, preceded by a short corridor that in the end mostly is completely overrun. Generally several larvae share a mine. Especially in fresh mines the green primary and secondary feeding lines are well visible. Pupation outside the mine.

Hering (1957a) warns that the mines cannot be separated from those of the rare Cryptaciura rotundiventris.

Mine is deep and leads to a blotch, which is usually coloured yellow or brown (British leafminers)

Euleia heraclei puparia
Euleia heraclei pupariria
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Polyphagous. On numerous genera of Apiaceae and possibly some Asteraceae, but not yet on Torilis, in Britain and elsewhere. Throughout the British Isles. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and most of the Palaearctic region, as far east as Afghanistan.

Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus, 1758) [Diptera: Tephritidae].



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