The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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SALICORNIA. Glassworts. [Chenopodiaceae]


Seven species of Salicornia are recorded in Britain - Long-spiked Glasswort (S. dolichostachya), Common Glasswort (S. europaea), Yellow Glasswort (S. fragilis), Shiny Glasswort (S. nitens), Glaucous Glasswort (S. obscura), One-flowered Glasswort (S. pusilla) and Purple Glasswort (S. ramosissima). All five are native. The BSBI provide a downloadable plant crib for Salicornia and Sarcocornia.

Six British miners are recorded on Salicornia.

The colophorids Coleophora atriplicis and Coleophora salicorniae are recorded as seed-feeders on Salicornia in Britain.

A key to the European miners recorded on Salicornia is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Salicornia


1a > Leaf-miner: The mine starts as a long, narrow, winding corridor running towards the midrib, widening to a blotch. Usually upper-surface, but in small leaves also full-depth parts may occur. The blotch has broad lobes; in their ends most frass is accumulated in the form of green patches or clouds. Sometimes several larvae share mine. Pupation usually in the soil, less often in the leaf (and then generally not in the mine itself but in a small separated mine, that may even be made in the petiole) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Scaptomyza graminum on
Mine of Scaptomyza graminum on Cerastium glomeratum
Image: © Jean-Yves Baugnée (Bladmineerders van Europaa)

On ? Amaranthus, Cerastium, Lychnis, Myosoton, Nasturtium, Silene, Stellaria, Atriplex, ? Anthyllis, ? Lupinus, ? Medicago, ? Montia and ? Antirrhinum, but not yet on Salicornia, in Britain.

On Amaranthus, Lepidium, Moricandia, ? Rorippa, Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Corrigiola, Cucubalus, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Moehringia, Myosoton, Polycarpon, Saponaria, Silene, Spergularia, Stellaria, Vaccaria, Viscaria, Atriplex, Beta, Chenopodium, Obione, Salicornia, Spinacia, Anthyllis, Lupinus, Medicago, Allium, Montia, Portulaca and Antirrhinum elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Scaptomyza graminum (Fallén, 1823) [Diptera: Drosophilidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: Broad mine of variable depth. Frass spread irregularly. Pupation usually internal, seldom external (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On ? Atriplex, ? Beta, ? Salicornia, ? Spergularia and ? Sueada in Britain plus Obione elsewhere. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Zatwarnicki, 2004 in Fauna Europaea). Widespread in continental Europe.

Clanoneurum cimiciforme (Haliday, 1855) [Diptera: Ephydridae].

1c > Leaf-miner: The first instar larva tends to make a U-shaped mine, whereas later larvae make irregular mines. Final instar larvae spin the leaves together and feed in a silken tube amongst the seeds (British leafminers). Young larvae make a short, spiralled corridor typically U-shaped). This stage is followed by an irregular, sometimes branching, greenish-white blotch. In their final stage the larva lives free in a silken tunnel among the leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa). Pupation in a cocoon of sand grains and detritus (British leafminers).

Scrobipalpa nitentella larva,  dorsal
Scrobipalpa nitentella larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Cakile, Atriplex, Beta, Chenopodium, Salicornia, Sarcocornia and Suaeda in Britain.and Atriplex, Beta, Chenopodium, Salicornia and Suaeda elsewhere. One of the commonest gelechid moths on saltings in the British Isles. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Scrobipalpa nitentella (Fuchs, 1902) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: Long, extremely narrow lower- or upper-surface corridor, with a black or brown central frass line. After a while this primary mine is vacated, and the larva starts making shorter, much broader, full depth blotch mines. In the end the larva lives free among spun leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On ? Aster tripolium, ? Suaeda maritima, but not yet on Salicornia, in Britain and Salicornia europaea elsewhere. Found on saltings in England and Wales. Widespread in continental Europe.

Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller, 1847) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae].

1e > Leaf-miner: Young larvae bore in the midrib, later they mine the leaf from a web spun over of the leaf.

On Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, but not yet on Salicornia, in Britain and ? Atriplex, Beta, ? Salicornia and ? Suaeda elsewhere. Widespread in southern England. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Scrobipalpa ocellatella (Boyd, 1858) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: Long, extremely narrow lower- or upper-surface corridor, with a black or brown central frass line. After a while this primary mine is vacated, and the larva starts making shorter, much broader, full depth blotch mines. In the end the larva lives free among spun leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On ? Aster tripolium, ? Suaeda maritima, but not yet on Salicornia, Britain and Salicornia europaea elsewhere. Found on saltings in England and Wales. Widespread in continental Europe.

Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller, 1847) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae]



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