The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Chromatomyia 'atricornis' auctt.
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza syngenesiae group; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 113
Chromatomyia 'atricornis' auctt.; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 386.


Leaf-mine: See syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

See syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

See syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau).

Comments: Two highly polyphagous species of Chromatomyia, with indistinguishable mines, have been recorded in Britain. These are syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau). Griffiths (1967b), after critical examination of male genitalia, confirmed that the hosts of syngenesiae are almost exclusively genera of Asteraceae, with just two exceptions, one on Daucus [Apiaceae] in Denmark and the other on Pisum [Fabaceae] in California, U.S.A. C. horticola mines numerous plant families including Asteraceae. The two species can only be distinguished by the structure of the male genitalia.

British records of syngenesiae, horticola or 'atricornis' on hosts other than Asteraceae in Britain, are assumed to represent horticola.

British records of horticola and syngenesiae on Asteraceae hosts not based on examination of the genitalia of associated males are treated here as Chromatomyia 'atricornis' and may represent either horticola or syngenesiae.

Hosts cited here include 55 plant genera in the family Asteraceae worldwide and 31 plant genera in Britain.

As the mines of horticola and syngenesiae are indistinguishable, the chalcidoid parasitoids recorded from these two species are listed below, as 'atricornis', horticola and/or syngenesiae.

Chrysanthemum segetum is treated as Glebionis segetum (Corn Marigold) and Picris echioides is treated as Helminthotheca echioides (Bristly Oxtongue) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Achillea filipendulina Fern-leaf Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 115, as horticola
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 115, as horticola
Achillea millefolium Yarrow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111, as syngenesiae
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 115, as horticola
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111, as syngenesiae
Achillea sibirica     Mines in BMNH
Ageratum houstonianum Flossflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Anthemis       Pitkin & Plant
Anthemis cotula Stinking Chamomile   Mines in BMNH
Anthemis cotula Stinking Chamomile   Spencer, 1972b: 111, as syngenesiae
Arctium       Robbins, 1991: 119, as syngenesiae
Arctium lappa Greater Burdock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111, as syngenesiae
Artemisia       Robbins, 1983: 25, as horticola
Artemisia absinthium Wormwood British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 111, as syngenesiae
Artemisia vulgaris Mugwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 119, as syngenesiae
Aster novae-angliae Hairy Michaelmas-daisy   Mines in BMNH
Aster novae-angliae Hairy Michaelmas-daisy   Spencer, 1972b: 111, as syngenesiae
? Bidens       Robbins, 1991: 109, as horticola
Bidens cernua Nodding Bur-marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Bidens tripartita Trifid Bur-marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Bidens tripartita Trifid Bur-marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112, as syngenesiae
Centaurea       Robbins, 1983: 25, as horticola
Centaurea       Robbins, 1983-7, as syngenesiae
Centaurea       Robbins, 1991: 122, as horticola
Centaurea cyanus Cornflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant, as syngenesiae
Centaurea cyanus Cornflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112, as syngenesiae
Centaurea montana Perennial Cornflower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 122, as horticola
Centaurea jacea Brown Knapweed   Mines in BMNH
Centaurea nigra Common Knapweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Centaurea nigra Common Knapweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112, as syngenesiae
Centaurea scabiosa Greater Knapweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Centaurea scabiosa Greater Knapweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112, as syngenesiae
Chrysanthemum       Robbins, 1983-7, as syngenesiae
Chrysanthemum       Robbins, 1991: 116, as syngenesiae
Chrysanthemum       Robbins, 1983: 26, as horticola
Chrysanthemum       Robbins, 1991: 116, as horticola
Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum     Pitkin & Plant
Chrysanthemum morifolium     Mines in BMNH
Chrysanthemum parthenium Feverfew British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cicerbita       Mines in BMNH
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cichorium intybus Chicory British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112, as syngenesiae
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 112, as syngenesiae
Cirsium vulgare Spear Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cirsium vulgare Spear Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113, as syngenesiae
Crepis       Robbins, 1991: 124, as horticola
Cynara scolymus Globe Artichoke British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant, as horticola
Dahlia       Robbins, 1991: 109, as horticola
Echinops banaticus Blue Globe-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Echinops banaticus Blue Globe-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113, as syngenesiae
Erigeron canadensis Canadian Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Erigeron canadensis Canadian Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113, as syngenesiae
Eupatorium       Robbins, 1983: 26, as horticola
Eupatorium       Robbins, 1991: 113, as syngenesiae
Eupatorium       Mines in BMNH
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113, as syngenesiae
Galinsoga parviflora Gallant-soldier British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Gazania       Mines in BMNH
Gerbera jamesonii     Pitkin & Plant, probably in error
Glebionis segetum Corn Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Glebionis segetum Corn Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH, as syngenesiae
Helianthus       Pitkin & Plant
Helianthus rigidus     Mines in BMNH
Hieracium       Spencer, 1972b: 87, as syngenesiae
Hieracium       Mines in BMNH
Hieracium umbellatum Umbellate Hawkweed   Spencer, 1972b: 113, as syngenesiae
Helminthotheca echioides Bristly Oxtongue British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH, as Picris

? Iva

      Pitkin & Plant
Lactuca       Pitkin & Plant
Lactuca serriola Prickly Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lactuca virosa Great Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Lapsana       Robbins, 1991: 124, as horticola
Lapsana       Robbins, 1991: 124, as syngenesiae
Lapsana communis Nipplewort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Leucanthemum       Robbins, 1991: 116, as syngenesiae
Leucanthemum x superbum Shasta Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH, as Chrysanthemum maximum
Leucanthemum x superbum Shasta Daisy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 116, as horticola on Chrysanthemum maximum
Mycelis       Pitkin & Plant, as atricornis and horticola
Mycelis muralis Wall Lettuce British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pericallis hybrida Cineraria   Pitkin & Plant
Picris       Pitkin & Plant

? Pulicaria

dysenterica ? Common Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Rudbeckia       Robbins, 1983: 26, as horticola
Senecio       Robbins, 1983: 26, as horticola
Senecio       Pitkin & Plant, as atricornis and syngenesiae
Senecio aquaticus Marsh Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114, as syngenesiae
Senecio cruentatus     Spencer, 1972b: 114, as syngenesiae
Senecio erucifolius Hoary Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant, as syngenesiae
Senecio jacobaea Common Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Senecio squalidus Oxford Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Senecio squalidus Oxford Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114, as syngenesiae
Senecio sylvaticus Heath Groundsel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Senecio sylvaticus Heath Groundsel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114, as syngenesiae
Senecio vulgaris Groundsel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus       Robbins, 1983: 26, as horticola
Sonchus       Robbins, 1991: 121, as syngenesiae
Sonchus       Robbins, 1991: 121, as horticola
Sonchus arvensis Perennial Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus asper Prickly Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus oleraceus Smooth Sow-thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Sonchus palustris Marsh Sow-thistle   Spencer, 1972b: 115, as syngenesiae
Sonchus scorpioides     Mines in BMNH
Tanacetum parthenium Feverfew British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Tanacetum parthenium Feverfew British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 117, as horticola
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Tanacetum vulgare Tansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 117, as horticola
Taraxacum       Mines in BMNH
Taraxacum       Pitkin & Plant, as atricornis and syngenesiae
Taraxacum       Robbins, 1991: 121, as horticola
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Taraxacum officinale Dandelion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant, as syngenesiae
Tripleurospermum maritimum x inodora     Spencer, 1972b: 114, as syngenesiae group

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Achillea       Spencer, 1990: 301
Ambrosia       Spencer, 1990: 316
Anacyclus       Spencer, 1990: 301
Anaphalis       Spencer, 1990: 273
Anaphalis       Bladmineerders van Europa, as cf. syngenesiae
Andryala       Spencer, 1990: 259
Anthemis       Bladmineerders van Europa, as cf. syngenesiae
         
Arctium       Spencer, 1990: 251
Arnica       Bladmineerders van Europa, as cf. syngenesiae
Arnoseris      

Bladmineerders van Europa, as cf. syngenesiae

Asteriscus       Bladmineerders van Europa, as cf. syngenesiae
Carlina       Spencer, 1990: 249
Chondrilla       Spencer, 1990: 259
Cicerbita       Spencer, 1990: 259
Cnicus       Spencer, 1990: 251
Cynara       Spencer, 1990: 251
Echinops       Spencer, 1990: 249
Eupatorium       Spencer, 1990: 289
Filago       Spencer, 1990: 273
Guizotia       Spencer, 1990: 316
Hieracium       Spencer, 1990: 259
Hypochaeris       Spencer, 1990: 259
Iva       Spencer, 1990: 316
Jurinea       Spencer, 1990: 251
Lapsana       Spencer, 1990: 259
Leontodon       Spencer, 1990: 259
Leontopodium       Spencer, 1990: 273
Mycelis       Spencer, 1990: 259
Onopordum       Spencer, 1990: 251
Pulicaria       Spencer, 1990: 273
Reichardia       Spencer, 1990: 259
Santolina       Spencer, 1990: 301
Saussurea       Spencer, 1990: 251
Serratula       Spencer, 1990: 251
Telekia       Spencer, 1990: 273
Tragopogon       Spencer, 1990: 259
Xanthium       Spencer, 1990: 316

Time of year - mines: See syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau).

Time of year - adults: See syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: See syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau).

Distribution elsewhere: See syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species: See syngenesiae (Hardy) and horticola (Goureau).

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: [may include records of 'atricornis', horticola and/or syngenesiae]

Chalcidoidea   
Aphelinus asychis Walker, 1839 Aphelinidae
Chrysocharis elongata (Thomson, 1878) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis liriomyzae Delucchi, 1954 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus crassinervis Erdös, 1958 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus poppoea Walker, 1848 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Panstenon oxylus (Walker, 1839) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Sphegigaster stepicola Boucek, 1965 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Urolepis maritima (Walker 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Glyphognathus laevis (Delucchi, 1953) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Halticoptera circulus (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster rufipes Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Seladerma berani (Delucchi, 1953) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Thinodytes cyzicus (Walker 1839) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Xestomnaster chrysochlorus (Walker, 1846) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Epiclerus nomocerus (Masi, 1934) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae
Epiclerus panyas (Walker, 1839) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chasmodon apterus (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus alecto (Morley, 1924) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus flavipes (Goureau, 1851) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus leptogaster (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus misellus (Marshall, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus nanus (Nixon, 1943) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa confinis Ruthe, 1859 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa pubescens (Curtis, 1926) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, 1935 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela melanocera (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius ambiguus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius gracilis Fischer, 1957 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius lugens Haliday, 1837 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pulchriceps (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma diversa Szépligeti, 1898 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma variegata (Szépligeti, 1896) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:

Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist

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