The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


ANGELICA. Angelicas. [Apiaceae]

Three species of Angelica are recorded in Britain - Wild Angelica (A. sylvestris), Garden Angelica (A. archangelica) and Portuguese Angelica (A. pachycarpa). Only the former is native.

Seven British miners are rercorded on Angelica.

The agromyzid Melanagromyza angeliciphaga is recorded boring stems of Angelica, Heracleum and Pastinaca in Britain and elsewhere.

The agromyzid Melanagromyza sativae is recorded boring stems of Angelica and other Apiaceae in Britain.

The agromyzid Liriomyza luteais recorded feeding in the seed-heads of Angelica and Pastinaca in Britain.

A key to the European miners recorded on Angelica is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Wild Angelica - Angelica sylvestris. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Wild Angelica
Angelica sylvestris

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Angelica

1a > Leaf-miner: The larvae are often gregarious and feed on the underside of the leaf causing a 'windowing' effect as they eat the mesophyll and lower epidermis. This effect can be seen from the top of the leaf as it discolours. Short, small, irregular, sometimes widened corridor. Mostly a number in a leaf, concentrated in the axils of the midrib and the primary side veins. Each larva makes a number of mines. Often the larva protrudes with its rear end out of the mine, causing most frass to be ejected. While moving, at the leaf underside, silken threads are produced, in wich grains of frass may be trapped. Older larvae live free and cause window feeding, often in a group under a light spinning.

Polyphagous. On Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus sylvestris, Daucus carota, Heracleum sphondylium and Heracleum sativain Britain and Aegopodium podagraria, Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis, Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus caucalis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Anthriscus sylvestris, Apium graveolens, Berula erecta, Carum carvi, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Chaerophyllum temulum, Cicuta virosa, Conium maculatum, Daucus carota, Heracleum sphondylium, Levisticum officinale, Oenanthe, Pastinaca sativa, Peucedanum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Seseli libanotis, Silaum, Sium latifolium, Sison amomum and Torilis elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Epermenia chaerophyllella (Goeze, 1783) [Lepidoptera: Epermeniidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: Blotch mine


1c > Leaf-miner: Linear mine.


2a > Leaf-miner: A large blotch, yellow or brown, preceded by a short, in the end mostly unrecognisable corridor. Generally several larvae in the mine. Especially in fresh mines the green primary and feeding lines area well marked. Pupation outside the mine.

On Angelica and possibly Arctium and Heracleum in Britain. On Aegopodium, Angelica, Laserpitium and Pimpinella elsewhere. Widespread but very rare in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and throughout continental Europe, except in the south.

Cryptaciura rotundiventris (Fallén, 1814) [Diptera: Tephritidae].

2b > Leaf-miner: A large blotch, yellow or brown, preceded by a short corridor that in the end mostly is completely overrun. Generally several larvae share a mine. Especially in fresh mines the green primary and secondary feeding lines are well visible. Pupation outside the mine. Puparium yellow.

Euleia heraclei puparia
Euleia heraclei pupariria
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On numerous genera of Apiaceae and possibly some Asteracea, including Angelica, in Britain and elsewhere, including Angelica in Britain. Throughout the British Isles. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and most of the Palaearctic region, as far east as Afghanistan.

Euleia heraclei (Linnaeus, 1758) [Diptera: Tephritidae].

2c > Leaf-miner: Larva forms an upper surface primary blotch with several larvae feeding together; the blotch is greenish when fresh but becomes yellowish with age (Spencer, 1972b: 78 (fig. 257); Spencer, 1976: 376, 377 (fig. 655)).

Round or oval blotch, green at first, later yellowish. Young mine are interparenchymatous, only the older mines are truly full depth. Generally several larvae in a communal mine. Pupation outside the mine. Exit slit in lower epidermis.

A conspicuous, yellowish, almost circular upper surface blotch. Normally several mines on a leaf which may run together giving the impression of a single mine.

Phytomyza angelicae puparium,  dorsal
Phytomyza angelicae puparium, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Aegopodium and Angelica in Britain and elsewhere and Laserpitium elsewhere. Widespread throughout Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in U.S.A. and Canada.

Phytomyza angelicae Kaltenbach, 1872 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

2d > Leaf-miner: A regular greenish inter-parenchymal blotch mine, frequently delimited by two veins, appearing somewhat mottled as a result of small deeper areas of feeding through the upper parenchyma (Spencer, 1972b: 78 (fig. 259); Spencer, 1976: 428, 429 (fig. 748).

The mine starts with a quite inconspicuous lower-surface corridor that soon changes into an extensive interparenchymatous blotch. The upper cell layer of the palisade parenchyma is eaten away in many places, giving the mine in transparency a perforated appearance. Fresh mines are pale green, later they turn brown; they give the leaves a strikingly diseased impression. Feeding lines absent, frass grains strikingly few. Larvae solitary. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in lower epidermis.

Forms a blotch mine between two veins, having a characteristic sieve-like appearance (where the larva has fed through the upper parenchyma). Pupation outside the mine..

Phytomyza heracleana puparium
Phytomyza heracleana puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Heracleum, but not yet on Angelica, in Britain and on Heracleum, ? Angelica, ? Caucalis, Laser, ? Laserpitium, Pastinaca, Peucedanum, Pimpinella and ? Seseli elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland.

Phytomyza heracleana Hering, 1937 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3a > Leaf-miner: Larva forming an irregular upper surface linear mine, which can widen and become almost blotch like at end (Spencer, 1972b: 78 (fig. 262), 81; Spencer, 1976: 378, 379 (fig. 657)).

Upper-surface blotch, often following the leaf margin for some length, finally strongly widened. The real start of the mine, however, is a long narrow epidermal corridor in the lower surface of the leaf, made by the first instar larva (Allen, 1956a). Pupation outside the mine, exit slit generally in the leaf lower epidermis.

An upper surface mine, which can widen and form a blotch.

On Aegopodium, Angelica and Pastinaca in Britain and Aegopodium and Angelica elsewhere. Widespread throughout Britain. Also recorded in Ireland and continental Europe.

Phytomyza angelicastri Hering, 1923 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

3b > Leaf-miner: An irregular whitish linear mine, not associated with leaf margin (Spencer, 1976: 383 (fig. 666)).

Corridor, lower-surface at first, upper-surface later. The upper part is 7-10 cm long and no more than 2 mm wide in the end. Frass in thick, black frains, sometimes in pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit either in upper or in lower epidermis.

Possibly on Angelica in Britain (Warwicks). On Angelica in continental Europe. Also recorded in Alaska.

Phytomyza archangelicae Hering, 1937 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

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