The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Pegomya hyoscyami (Panzer, 1809)
[Diptera: Anthomyiidae]


Anthomyia hyoscyami Panzer, 1809. Faunae insects germ. Fasc 108: 13
Chortophila chenopodii Rondani, 1866. Atti Soc. ital. Sci. nat., Milano 9: 162
Chortophila hyoscyami silenes Hering, 1924a. Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 19: 37.
Pegomya hyoscyami (Panzer, 1809).


Leaf-mine: Large blotch mine, often with several larvae, beginning with a short deeper corridor at a single egg shell on the surface of the leaf. The broad deep corridor later ends in a blotch but can be recognised (beneath the blotch) by its greater depth. Mine predominantly dorsal or ventral, greenish in transmitted light. Frass grains irregularly scattered except in the initial corridor.

Blotch, mostly occupying almos the entire leaf, containing several larvae. Much, half-deliquescent, greenish-black frass. At the start of the mine at the leaf underside a group of some 5 elliptic egg shells, parallel to each other. However, the larvae can leave their mine and restart elsewhere, so mines without egg shells can occur as well. The larvae do not penetrate into the stem of the plant, neither is the mine full depth (compare Delia species) (Bladmineerders van Europa). Mine indistinguishable from P. exilis or P. hyoscyami (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Makes a large upper surface whitish blotch, which can contain several larvae. The frass has a washed out appearance and is greenish. There may be several mines on a leaf and eventually the leaf will be mined and then shrivel up. To identify this miner adults must be reared (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The eggs and larvae are described d'Aguilar and Missonier (1957 and 1962). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. Larva with bud-like posterior spiracles.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The adult is ilustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Comments: According to Michelsen (1980) hyoscyami is reliably recorded only from Beta and Chenopodium, Hyoscyamus and Silene . Any earlier records should be regarded as unsubstantiated. Pegomya exilis and Pegomya cunicularia were distinguished from Pegomya betae and Pegomya hyoscyami by Michelsen (1980). Material of both [the former species] had previously been assigned to those [two latter] species (Chandler, pers. comm.).

Chenopodium ambrosioides is treated as Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican-tea) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Caryophyllaceae        
Silene maritima Sea Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 34
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Chenopodiaceae        
Atriplex       Robbins, 1991: 36
Atriplex glabriuscula Babington's Orache British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1994
Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris Mike Ackland, pers. comm.
Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris British leafminers
Chenopodium       Robbins, 1991: 36
Chenopodium album Fat Hen British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Chenopodium polyspermum Many-seeded Goosefoot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Chenopodium urbicum City Goosefoot   British leafminers
Spinacia oleracea Spinach   British leafminers
Solanaceae        
Hyoscyamus niger Stinking Nightshade   British leafminers
? Solanum       Pitkin & Plant
? Solanum dulcamara Bittersweet / Woody Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 98

Hosts elsewhere:

Caryophyllaceae        
Silene       Michelsen, 1980
Silene vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Silene vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Bladder Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Silene cucubalus

Chenopodiaceae        
Atriplex glabriuscula Babington's Orache British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Atriplex hastata Spear-leaved Orache British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Atriplex nitens     Bladmineerders van Europa
Atriplex patula Common Orache British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Beta       Michelsen, 1980
Beta trigyna Caucasian Beet   Bladmineerders van Europa
Beta vulgaris Beet Beta vulgaris Griffiths, 1982
Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima Sea Beet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium       Michelsen, 1980
Chenopodium album Fat-hen British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium ambrosioides Mexican-tea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium bonus-henricus Good-King-Henry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium foliosum Strawberry Goosefoot   Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium glaucum Oak-leaved Goosefoot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium hybridum Maple-leaved Goosefoot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium murale Nettle-leaved Goosefoot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium opulifolium Grey Goosefoot   Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium polyspermum Many-seeded Goosefoot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium quinoa Quinoa British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium rubrum Red Goosefoot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium urbicum Upright Goosefoot   Bladmineerders van Europa
Chenopodium vulvaria Stinking Goosefoot   Bladmineerders van Europa
Spinacia oleracea Spinach   Griffiths, 1982
Spinacia oleracea Spinach   Bladmineerders van Europa
Solanaceae        
Atropa belladonna Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Griffiths, 1982
Atropa belladona Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Datura aegyptiaca     Bladmineerders van Europa
Datura metel     Bladmineerders van Europa
Datura metel     Griffiths, 1982
Datura quercifolia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Datura stramonium Thorn-apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Datura stramonium Thorn-apple British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Datura inermis

Datura tatulaf     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hyoscyamus       Michelsen, 1980
Hyoscyamus afureus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hyoscyamus albus White Henbane   Bladmineerders van Europa
Hyoscyamus niger Henbane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lycium afrum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Scopolia carniolica Scopolia   Bladmineerders van Europa
Solanum dulcamara Bittersweet / Woody Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Solanum nigrum Black Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-September.

Time of year - adults: August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Warwickshire (Coventry and Chadwick End) (Robbins, 1991), East Kent (VC15), Glamorganshire (VC41), North Somerset (VC6), Surrey (VC17), West Cornwall (VC1) and Wigtownshire (NBN Gateway).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Pegomya hyoscyami
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Andorra, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Norwegian mainland, Russia - Northwest, Spanish mainland and Sweden (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in the East Palaearctic (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea) and North America (Griffiths, 1982).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Atriplex glabriuscula, Atriplex hastata, Atriplex patula, Atropa belladonna, Beta trigyna, Beta vulgaris, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium ambrosioides (= Dysphania ambrosioides), Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Chenopodium foliosum, Chenopodium glaucum, Chenopodium hybridum, Chenopodium murale, Chenopodium opulifolium, Chenopodium polyspermum, Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodium rubrum, Chenopodium urbicum, Chenopodium vulvaria, Datura metel, Datura stramonium, Hyoscyamus afureus, Hyoscyamus albus, Hyoscyamus niger, Silene maritima, Silene vulgaris, Silene vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, ? Solanum dulcamara, Solanum nigrum, Spinacia oleracea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Cyrtogaster clavicornis Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Trichomalopsis hemiptera (Walker, 1835) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, 1833 Trichogrammatidae: Trichogrammatinae
Trichogramma minutum Riley, 1871 Trichogrammatidae: Trichogrammatinae
Trichogramma semblidis (Aurivillius, 1891) Trichogrammatidae: Trichogrammatinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa pubescens (Curtis, 1926) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Phaenocarpa ruficeps (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Microgaster polita Marshall, 1885 Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Apodesmia rufipes (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Biosteres carbonarius (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Opiinae
Biosteres spinaciae (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Opiinae
Biosteres sylvaticus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Biosteres wesmaelii (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Diachasma fulgidum (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Eurytenes silenis (Fischer, 1967) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma munda (Förster, 1862) Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma variegata (Szépligeti, 1896) Braconidae: Opiinae
Utetes fulvicollis (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Opiinae
Utetes testaceus (Wesmael, 1838) Braconidae: Opiinae
Rhysipolis meditator (Haliday, 1836) Braconidae: Rhysipolinae
Phygadeuon detestator (Thunberg, 1822) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Phygadeuon pegomyiae Habermehl, 1928 Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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