Leaf-miner: Full depth blotch, invariably beginning at the leaf tip or the tip
of a leaf lobe or tooth. Oviposition site covered by a black, shining
drop of hardened secretion. Frass generally in long threads, but
sometimes in elongated granules (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The mine is also ullustrated in British Leafminers.
Larva: The larvae of beetles have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles and lack abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of beetles have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation in the mine, not in a cocoon Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia
of Life and British Leafminers.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
Mid May - mid August (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including
Berkshire (VC22), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Dorset (VC9), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Sussex (VC14), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Leicestershire (VC55),
North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Lincolnshire (VC54), Northamptonshire (VC32),
Nottinghamshire (VC56), Oxfordshire (VC23), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lincolnshire (VC53),
South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), Surrey (VC17), West Kent (VC16) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Corsica,
Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, European Turkey,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Macedonia, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Russia - Central, East, Northwest and South, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine, Yugoslavia. Also recorded in the Australian region and
Near East (Alonso-Zarazaga in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.