The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1826
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c. Z. Morph. ökol. Tiere 5(3): 458
Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 495
Phytomyza umensis Rydén, 1949. Opusc. ent. 14: 87. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 534]
Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 80, 115
Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 524-5, fig. 918
Phytomyza virgaureae Hering, 1926c; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 274, 283, 284 (fig. 1087).

Leaf-miner: A whitish linear mine, with frass predominantly in separate grains, rather than connected strips (Spencer, 1976: 525).

Initially narrow, gradually and weakly widening corridor of about 10-12 cm. The mine is upper-surface, pale green. Feeding lines not conspicuous. Frass in separate grains or short pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 198). See also de Meijere (1937a), Beiger (1960) and Griffiths (1976c). Anterior spiraculum with 11-12 papillae, posterior with c. 14 papillae in an irregular curve (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosingl." title="Images of host in British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al." width="15" height="12" border="1" />

Spencer, 1972b: 120
Rhinanthus minor subsp. calcareus     Spencer, 1972b: 120

Hosts elsewhere:

Rhinanthus       Spencer, 1976: 524
Rhinanthus       Spencer, 1990: 222

Time of year - larvae: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: July-August.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Cambridge (Wicken Fen), Suffolk (Barton Mills), Is. of Lewis (Spencer, 1972b: 75), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992); Cambridgeshire, East Suffolk, Glamorgan, North Somerset, South-west Yorkshire and West Suffolk (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (the Burren), nr. Dublin (Spencer, 1972b: 75).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Is., Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Sweden, The Netherlands (Fauna Europaea) and Iceland (Spencer, 1976: 524).

Also known from Canada (Nova Scotia) (Spencer, 1976: 524).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Rhinanthus minor

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Seladerma geniculatum (Zetterstedt, 1838) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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