The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


RHINANTHUS. Yellow-rattles. [Scrophulariaceae]

Two species of Rhinanthus, Greater Yellow-rattle (R. angustifolius) and Yellow-rattle (R. minor) are recorded in Britain. Both are native. Greater Yellow-rattle (R. angustifolius) is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981.

Two British miners are recorded on Rhinanthus.

A key to the European miners recorded on Rhinanthus is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Yellow-rattle - Rhinanthus sp. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Rhinanthus sp.

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Rhinanthus

1a > Leaf-miner: Oviposition takes place in an upper leaf and a short mine is formed either in the leaf or stem, but the larva feeds primarily in the stem. Pupating in the stem (Spencer, 1976: 487 (fig. 857), 488).

Short and narrow corridor in the leaves, bracts or even calyx, ending in a thick vein. From there the larva descends as a borer. Infested plants largely die off. Pupation and hibernation within the mine.

On Odontites and Rhinanthus in Britain and Euphrasia, Melampyrum, Odontites and Rhinanthus elsewhere. Distribution in Britain unknown, added to the British list by Henshaw in Chandler, 1998. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada.

Phytomyza rostrata Hering, 1934 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: Rather long full depth corridor that winds freely through the leaf and may cross itself. In the end the corridor widens considerably. Frass mostly in a narrow central line, but may also be deposited along the sides or be missing. The larvae regular leave a mine to restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. Neither larva or mine can be distinguished from that of related species.

Polyphagous. On numerous genera and species in several plant families, but not yet on Rhinanthus, in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Apteropeda orbiculata (Marsham, 1802) [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae].

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