Leaf-miner: The frass is linear in early part of mine (British
at the underside of the leaf, generally near a vein. The mine is
s slender corridor. Frass in its first part in a narrow central
line. The frass pattern in the later segment is very variable: sometimes
in a narrow central line, sometimes broadly dispersed or even coiled.
Especially in the latter case confusion with St. lemniscella is
hard to avoid. The only reliable character that remains then is
that the exit slit is in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is green. The larva exits on the underside of the
green (amber in lemmiscella );
see Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) for a description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August - September (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - East, Sardinia, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine, and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: