Leaf-miner: A short gallery with linear frass (British
usually at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a long sinuous
gallery, often with a hairpin turn. Frass in a central line, leaving
a clear zone at either side; this applies also to the first part
of the corridor. Borkowski (1969a) stresses that the frass never
is coiled (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellow, head brown (British
leafminers; Emmet, 1983a; Gustafsson and van Nieukerken 1990a;
Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40),
South Essex (VC18), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), West Kent (VC16), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Croatia, Czech Republic,
Danish mainland, Estonia, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland,
The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: