and flower feeder: In the spring the larvae feed in the stems
and flowers (UKMoths).
transparent, irregularly shaped full depth mines, less than a square
cm, often several in a leaf. Frass granular, little or missing.
Afrer some time the larvae leave the mines and continue feeding
freely at the leaf underside or under a folded leaf margin (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
with purple longitudinal lines (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cocoon on a leaf and the pupa are illustrated
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths
and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
July - November; a spring generation that occurs in March - April
bores in the stalks of the inflorescence (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Two generations, one in May and June, and
a second in the autumn. Adults are regularly attracted to light
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and fairly common
in open, grassy habitats and waste ground in Britain (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Cardiganshire (VC46), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Cumberland (VC70), Derbyshire (VC57),
County Durham (VC66), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27),
East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7),
Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59), South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, Northwest and
South, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: