The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phyllonorycter schreberella (Fabricius, 1781)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Small Elm Midget

Tinea schreberella Fabricius, 1781. Spec. Ins. 2: 304.
Phyllonorycter schreberella
(Fabricius, 1781).

Leaf-miner: The mine is oval, sometimes crossing veins. The lower epidermis with several strong creases (British leafminers).

Along with P. tristrigella, this species feeds on elm, although not usually on wych elm like that species. However the two mines are quite different - schreberella forming a rounded mine and tristrigella a longer, narrower tube-like mine (UKMoths).

Short, roundish to oval, somewhat inflated, lower surface tentiform mine, often crossing a lateral vein. Epidermis with several length folds. Bladmineerders van Europa.

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Dark brown pupa in a tough, greenish cocoon; the cocoon lies free in the mine, and its wall is not encrusted with frass (Bladmineerders van Europa). The cremaster is illustrated in British leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The species is included in

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Ulmus       British leafminers
Ulmus       UKMoths
Ulmus glabra Wych Elm British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Ulmus procera English Elm British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

? Carpinus betulus Hornbeam British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ulmus glabra Wych Elm British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ulmus laevis European White-elm   Bladmineerders van Europa
Ulmus minor Small Leaved Elm British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ulmus pumila     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July, September - October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: The adults fly in two generations during May and August (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Mainly in the southern half of England and Wales (UKMoths) including Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, East Cornwall, East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk,Flintshire, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Isle of Wight, Leicestershire, Middlesex, Montgomeryshire, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Somerset, Northampton, Pembrokeshire, Shropshire, South Somerset, Stafford, West COrnwall, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Norfolk, West Suffolk and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

? Carpinus betulus, Ulmus glabra, Ulmus laevis, Ulmus minor, Ulmus procera

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Achrysocharoides latreillii (Curtis, 1826) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Achrysocharoides splendens (Delucchi, 1954) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis phryne (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius alcaeus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus diallus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani, 1877) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio agraules (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Adelius subfasciatus Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Cheloninae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Acrolyta nens (Hartig, 1838) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae

External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 21-Apr-2018  Brian Pitkin Top of page