Leaf-miner: The mine is underside, about 25 mm long, often from midrib to margin
of leaf. The lower epidermis appears smooth. There may be several
mines in a leaf (British
lower-surface tentiform mine, often occupying the entire space between
two side veins, from the midrib almost to the leaf margin, Lower
epidermis without clear folds.The larva is grey (all other phyllonorycters
on Alder are white). Pupa in a light brown cocoon that is fastened
to the roof of the mine. The cocoon is entirely free of frass: all
frass is accumulated in the inner corner of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Cremaster with only one pair of spines; mesonotum without a pit at the rear margin. The cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The female genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - October (British
of year - adults: The moth is believed to have only a single
generation, flying in July and August, though bred specimens will
emerge in spring if kept indoors (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including
Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cardiganshire (VC46),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), Dorset (VC9), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Merionethshire (VC48),
Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Lancashire (VC59), South-west Yorkshire (VC63),
Staffordshire (VC39), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). Also Fleet, Hampshire (British
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Russia - Central and Northwest, Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish
mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839)
|Achrysocharoides latreillii (Curtis, 1826)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
|Pnigalio agraules (Walker, 1839)
|Pnigalio longulus (Zetterstedt, 1838)
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
|Baryscapus nigroviolaceus (Nees, 1834)
stylata Förster, 1862
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor nanus (Reinhard, 1880)
|Rhysipolis hariolator (Haliday, 1836)
|Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802)