Leaf-miner: The mine is underside, between veins, often causing leaf to
arch. Several mines may be found in one leaf (British
tentiform mine, usually between two side veins, without clear folds
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Margins of frontal appendage straight. Rear margin of cremaster
straigt to convex (Triberti, 2007a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The female genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Treated as a junior synonym of P.
spinicolella in Fauna Europaea. Where Malus species grow in proximity of cultived
Prunus, mines may occur also on Apple (Tribert, 2007a). (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - April (British
of year - adults: Two generations, adults flying in May and
again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Mainly in the southern half
on England (UKMoths);
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Norfolk (VC27),
East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Isle of Wight (VC10),
Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7),
Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, Northwest
and South, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also
recorded in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: