Leaf-miner: The larva starts making a corridor of a few mm, followed, and
mostly overrun, by a circular blotch of 4-5 mm diameter (Bladmineerders van Europa).
several larvae feed in a single leaf, creating a distinctive pattern
of feeding windows. The larvae then cut out circular cases and drop
to the leaf-litter to continue feeding, leaving behind a leaf containing
many circular or oval cut-outs (UKMoths).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
The ovipositor comb of pectinea is illustrated in British
leafminers alongside oehmanniella and masculella .
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: May-June (British
of year - adults: Flying in April and May (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widely distributed throughout
much of the British Isles, (UKMoths)
including Banffshire (VC94), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96),
Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), North Aberdeenshire (VC93),
North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92),
South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63),
Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Ireland's NBDC interactive map).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, ? Luxembourg, Macedonia,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, North
and Northwest, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and
The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: