widening while descending from the tip of the leaf. The mine is
unusual because the sides are very irregularly scalloped out. Moreover,
the mine is not evenly transparent, but rather yellowish green and
motly, because the larva leaves patches of parenchyma uneaten, and
does not feed full depth. Frass in a few irregular, interrupted
length lines. Often 2-3 larvae in a mine. The larvae hibernate in
the centre of the mine; after winter they leave their mine and pupate
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva of apicipunctella is bone coloured. Pronotum, prosternum and anal shield have chitin
structures of a characteristic shape (Steuer, 1976a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection group.
Festuca gigantea is treated
as Schedonorus gigantea (Giant Fescue) by Stace (2010).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland: Various grasses (UKMoths).
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
of year - larvae:
October until about April (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: The adult moths emerge in a single generation
from late April to June in the south, and somewhat later in the
north, from June to July. There may occasionally be the emergence
of a second generation in the south (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Common throughout woodland clearings
in Britain (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - North and Northwest, Slovakia,
Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
sylvaticum, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Dactylis
gigantea (= Schedonorus
gigantea ), Holcus
nemoralis, Poa remota
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: