and case-bearer: Larva mines leaves. The case is enlarged several times by mining
a leaf-edge and inserting the existing case into the mine which
is joined with silk. The final case is 7-8 mm long (British
in a composite leaf case, composed of large leaf fragments. Characteristically,
the leaf fragments are attached in a failry untidy way. In spring
the case has two colours, because the old material (dull yellowish,
grey or pink) dates from before the hibernation, while new, reddish
brown material dates from after the winter. The case finally is
about 7-8 mm long; the mouth angle is 40-45°. (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September to October, feeding again in April
and May (British
of year - adults: June or July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in woodland where
the foodplants are found (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Isle of Wight (VC10), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Somerset (VC6),
Northamptonshire (VC32), South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: