and case-bearer: The larva creates a succession of cases, in this instance fashioned
from parts of a leaf. The final case is 11-13 mm long, slender,
and fixed at 45° to the leaf surface, with anal end laterally
compressed and bivalved (British
slender, brown, spathulate leaf case, in the end about 13 mm long;
mouth angle about 15°. Young case slender, not hooked (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
case is illustrated in UKMoths,
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
Probably from September (early feeding not recorded) to November,
feeding again from late May to June or July. There is also a biennial
population, which aestivates and completes feeding in June or July
of the second year (British
leafminers). The species overwinters in a cases, in some populations
twice before emerging as an adult (UKMoths).
of year - adults: Mainly in July and August. Some populations
only produce adults every two years (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A rather local species which
is slowly increasing its range. It occurs in scattered colonies
in central and southern England, but also occasionally elsewhere
including East Kent (VC15), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), West Gloucestershire (VC34) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium,
Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Romania, Sardinia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Swede, Switzerland and The
Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: