and case-bearer: Blotch
mines reaching the edge of the leaf, initially pale green turning
brownish white, are caused by the larva feeding on the underside
of a leaf (UKMoths).
fully developed case is slender, shining black brown, about 9 mm
long. Towards the end a narrow, transparent yellowish ventral keel.
Mouth angle 50-60°. Cases on the leaf underside (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The mine is illustrated in British Leafminers.
case is also illustrated in British
leafminers and UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation from May to early June is in the case, usually attached
to a hard surface such as a rock or post (UKMoths).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Nigel Whinney.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
August - May (British
leafminers). The larva starts feeding and case making in August,
overwinters half grown, recommences feeding in early March and is
full-grown in May (UKMoths).
of year - adults: Mid-June to August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Throughout England and Wales
and a few places in Scotland, in open and shady habitats where the
foodplants occurs (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Herefordshire (VC36), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Pembrokeshire (VC45), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Spanish
mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: