larvae feed at first in a mine, and later in a folded or rolled
mine begins with a usually rather short gallery, that opens into
(and often is overrun by) a silvery epidermal upper-surface blotch
with light brown frass. When the mine gets older it contracts and
becomes an elongate blister or even a tube. Soon the larva leaves
the mine and continues feeding within a downwards rolled leaf margin,
that is fastened with silk (Bladmineerders van Europa).
rolled leaf is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
a silk membrane on underside of leaf (UKMoths). Pupation in a transparent, yellow-shining cocoon at the leaf margin
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: May, July (British
of year - adults: Two generations, June and again during September,
after which they hibernate and reappear in spring (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A relatively common species
throughout much of Britain including Lancaster (Littleborough)
Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), Dorset (VC9), East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Isle of Wight (VC10), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeen. South Devon (VC3), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Stirlingshire (VC86), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38),
West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26),
West Sutherland (VC109), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany,
Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, North and
Northwest, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Macrocentrus linearis (Nees, 1811)
|Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, 1834)
|Dolichogenidea dilecta (Haliday, 1834)
|Pholetesor laetus (Marshall, 1885)
|Rhysipolis hariolator (Haliday, 1836)
|Campoplex lugubrinus (Holmgren 1860)
|Diadegma fenestrale (Holmgren, 1860)
|Bathythrix prominens (Strobl 1901)
|Diaglyptidea conformis (Gmelin, 1790)
|Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848)
|Gelis areator (Panzer, 1804)
|Itoplectis alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802)