larva creates a narrow gallery containing black or brownish frass,
and subsequently one or more shorter mines or windows (UKMoths).
first a long, narrow, corridor with brown or black frass in a central
line; the mine may be upper- or lower-surface of even interparenchymatous,
and often enters the cortex of the stem. After some time this mine
is vacated and the larva starts making several short full depth
blotches. Some larvae keep this habit until short before pupation,
others soon begin window-feeding (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
larva is illustrated in UKMoths
and by Emmet (1985a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The larva pupates in a white ribbed cocoon and is illustrated in UKMoths.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: April - May and July - August (British
of year - adults: June and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A relatively common species
around the coastal saltings of England and Wales, though probably
overlooked as an adult due to its size (UKMoths);
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Dorset (VC9), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Merionethshire (VC48), Monmouthshire (VC35), North
Essex and Westmorland (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central,
East, North and Northwest, Slovakia, Sweden, The Netherlands and
Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: