first generation initially forms an unmistakable leaf-mine on Anthyllis
vulneraria, but the second generation feeds on the flowers.
Feeding signs on other plants vary in appearance. Larvae can move
between sewn leaves, and more than one larva may be found together
in a small full depth blotch, often with extensions. Frass concentrated
in one corner of the mine. The mining activities may cause the leaf
to roll inwards. Older larvae live free among spun leaves, but still
they may make then full depth mines by feeding on the leaf tissue
from a small opening (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Dark purple to greyish brown with a faint light dorsal line on the
first three segments. Also the constrictions between these segments
are whitish. Anal shield and thoracic feet black. Pronotum with
a black marking. See Huertas Dionisio (2005a) for an extensive description
of larva and pupa (Bladmineerders van Europa).
larva is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The genitalia male and female are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: Larvae are usually stated to occur in April-May
and July-August, but it is uncertain how the species overwinters.
Early instar larvae can be found on A. vulneraria in September
(1.25 mm- 2.3mm, pers. obs. I.F. Smith) and in January (MBGBI 4-2),
and A. vulneraria plants covered with netting in November
with undetected early larvae or ova had 2.5 mm larvae the following
March (pers. obs. I.F. Smith) (UKMoths).
of year - adults: There are two generations, May and June and
again in August and September (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A reasonably common species
throughout most of the British Isles including Lancaster (Greater
Manchester, Chorlton) and Chester (UKMoths);
Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Carmarthenshire (VC44), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Merionethshire (VC48), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
North Wiltshire (VC7), North-east Yorkshire (VC62), Oxfordshire (VC23), Pembrokeshire (VC45),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Cornwall (VC1),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway), and the Channel Is.
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Balearic Is., Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Dodecanese Is., Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany,
Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madeira, Malta, North Aegean Is.,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia
- Central, East, North, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: