The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


THESIUM. Bastard-toadflax. [Santalaceae]

Two species of Thesium are recorded in Britain. These include the native Bastard-toadflax (T. humifusum).

Only one British miner is recorded on Thesium in Britain.

A key to the European miners recorded on Thesium is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Bastard Toadflax - Thesium humifusum. Image: © Linda Pitkin
Bastard Toadflax
Thesium humifusum

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Thesium

1 > Leaf-miner: Small, full depth, irregular corridor mine. Older larvae live free on the plant.

On Thesium in Britain and elsewhere. Britain including East Sussex. Widespread in continental Europe.

Epermenia insecurella (Stainton, 1854) [Lepidoptera: Epermeniidae].

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