The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


MELAMPYRUM. Cow-wheats. [Scrophulariaceae]

Five species of Melampyrum are recorded in Britain. These include the native Field Cow-wheat (M. arvense), Crested Cow-wheat (M. cristatum), Common Cow-wheat (M. pratense) and Small Cow-wheat (M. sylvaticum).

Field Cow-wheat (M. arvense) is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981.

Small Cow-wheat (M. sylvaticum) is protected in Northern Ireland under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985.

Only one British miner is recorded on Melampyrum.

A key to the European miners recorded on Melampyrum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Field Cow-wheat - Melampyrum arvense. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Field Cow-wheat
Melampyrum arvense

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Melampyrum

1 > Leaf-miner: Oviposition takes place in an upper leaf and a short mine is formed either in the leaf or stem, but the larva feeds primarily in the stem. Pupating in the stem (Spencer, 1976: 487 (fig. 857), 488).

Short and narrow corridor in the leaves, bracts or even calyx, ending in a thick vein. From there the larva descends as a borer. Infested plants largely die off. Pupation and hibernation within the mine .

On Odontites, but not yet on Melampyrum, in Britain and Euphrasia, Melampyrum, Odontites and Rhinanthus elsewhere. Distribution in Britain unknown. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada.

Phytomyza rostrata Hering, 1934 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

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