The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


MELAMPYRUM. Cow-wheats. [Scrophulariaceae]

Five species of Melampyrum are recorded in Britain. These include the native Field Cow-wheat (M. arvense), Crested Cow-wheat (M. cristatum), Common Cow-wheat (M. pratense) and Small Cow-wheat (M. sylvaticum).

Field Cow-wheat (M. arvense) is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981.

Small Cow-wheat (M. sylvaticum) is protected in Northern Ireland under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985.

Only one British miner is recorded on Melampyrum.

A key to the European miners recorded on Melampyrum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Field Cow-wheat - Melampyrum arvense. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Field Cow-wheat
Melampyrum arvense

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Melampyrum

1 > Leaf-miner: Oviposition takes place in an upper leaf and a short mine is formed either in the leaf or stem, but the larva feeds primarily in the stem. Pupating in the stem (Spencer, 1976: 487 (fig. 857), 488).

Short and narrow corridor in the leaves, bracts or even calyx, ending in a thick vein. From there the larva descends as a borer. Infested plants largely die off. Pupation and hibernation within the mine.

On Odontites, but not yet on Melampyrum, in Britain and Euphrasia, Melampyrum, Odontites and Rhinanthus elsewhere. Distribution in Britain unknown. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded in Canada.

Phytomyza rostrata Hering, 1934 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

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