The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza rostrata Hering, 1934
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza rostrata Hering, 1934b. Märk. Tierwelt 1(1): 19
Phytomyza rostrata Hering, 1934b; Hering, 1960. Dt. ent. Z. [neue Folge] 7: 142
Phytomyza sagitta Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 458. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 486]
Phytomyza wustnei Rydén, 1958. Opusc. ent. 21: 173. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 486]
Phytomyza oblita Spencer, 1969a. Memoirs of the entomological Society of Canada 64: 259-61. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1976: 486]
Phytomyza rostrata Hering, 1934b; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 486-8, figs 855-7.
Phytomyza rostrata Hering, 1934b; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 222, 226 (fig. 855), 227, 229.

Leaf-miner / Stem-borer: Oviposition takes place in an upper leaf and a short mine is formed either in the leaf or stem, but the larva feeds primarily in the stem. Pupating in the stem (Spencer, 1976: 487 (fig. 857), 488).

Short and narrow corridor in the leaves, bracts or even calyx, ending in a thick vein. From there the larva descends as a borer. Infested plants largely die off. Pupation and hibernation within the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is described by de Meijere (1946). Pale yellow, usually narrow and elongate, with posterior spiracles in the form of an elliptical, slightly raised plates each with up to 25 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 488).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Odontites       Pitkin & Plant
Odontites       Spencer, 1990: 222
Rhinanthus       Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Euphrasia       Spencer, 1976: 487
Euphrasia officinalis Eyebright British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Euphrasia odontites     Spencer, 1990: 227
Melampyrum       Spencer, 1976: 487
Melampyrum arvense Field Cow-wheat British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Melampyrum nemorosum     Hering, 1934
Melampyrum pratense Common Cow-wheat British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Odontites       Spencer, 1976: 487
Odontites       Spencer, 1990: 222
Odontites rubra     Bladmineerders van Europa
Odontites vernus Red Bartsia British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rhinanthus       Spencer, 1976: 487
Rhinanthus       Spencer, 1990: 222
Rhinanthus alecterolophus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Rhinanthus angustifolius Greater Yellow-rattle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rhinanthus glaber     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: Two generations (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Tentatively added to British checklist by Bland (1992) and confirmed by Henshaw in Chandler, 1998. West Gloucestershire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including France, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 487), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 259-61, as oblita).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Euphrasia officinalis, Melampyrum arvense, Melampyrum pratense, Odontites rubra, Rhinanthus angustifolius

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Stenomalina gracilis (Walker, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Epiclerus temenus (Walker, 1839) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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