The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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HIEROCHLOE. Holy-grass. [Poaceae]


Holy-grass (H. odorata) is the only species of Hierochloe recorded in Britain. It is protected in Northern Ireland under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985.

Five British minerss are recorded on Hierochloe in Britain.

Nearly 100 British miners or possible miners are recorded on grasses in Britain.

A key to the European mines recorded on Hierochloe is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

It is recommended that adults of all miners on grasses be reared to be certain of their identity.



Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Hierochloe


1a > Leaf miner: Broad lower surface mine which generally starts at the leaf apex.The mine is somewhat irregular in depth. Frass in irregular black-green, frequently melted grains, mostly along the edges of the mine. Larva solitary. Pupation generally internal (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Calamagrostis, Elymus and Hierochloe in Britain and additional genera of grasses elsewhere. Widespread and not uncommon in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe. Also recorded Canada and the U.S.A.

Cerodontha muscina (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: Broad elongated mine; the form is dependent of the leaf form of the host plant. Frass green. Usually a number of larvae together in a mine. Pupation in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Bromopsis, Dactylis, Elymus and Phalaris, but not yet on Hierochloe, in Britain and additional grasses, including Elytrigia, elsewhere. Widespread in Britain. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread and common in continental Europe. Also recorded in Japan, U.S.A. and Canada.

Cerodontha incisa (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1c > Leaf miner: A substantial linear mine. Pupation internal; posterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1976: 449).

Elongated, shallow, upper-surface or lower-surface blotch, not infrequently several in one leaf. Frass in strings or pearl chains. Pupation within the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Mine of Chromatomyia milii on Holcus lanatus. Image: © Willem Ellis (Source: Bladmineerders en plantengallen van Europa)
Mine of Chromatomyia milii on Holcus lanatus
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Chromatomyia milii larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia milii larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Chromatomyia milii larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia milii larva, dorsal
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On Hierochloe, Holcus, Hordeum, Milium and Poa in Britain and additional genera of grasses elsewhere. Almost certainly widespread throughout the British Isles. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread from Morocco through central and northern Europe.

Chromatomyia milii (Kaltenbach, 1864) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: Long, narrow, whitish mine. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 453); anterior spiracles projecting through the epidermis.

Whitish, upper-surface, rather narrow corridor with comparatively large frass grains that are laying further apart than their diameter. Pupation within the mine. The anterior spiracles of the orange-brown puparium penetrate the epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Chromatomyia nigra larva,  lateral
Chromatomyia nigra larva, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Orchestes fagi larva,  dorsal
Chromatomyia nigra pupa, lateral
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

On numerous genera of grasses, but not yet on Hierochloe, in Britain. Widespread and common throughout British Isles and much of Europe. Also recorded in Canada, western U.S.A. and Japan.

Chromatomyia nigra (Meigen, 1830) [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1e > Leaf miner: Makes long narrow galleries. The frass is distributed through the mine and also some is ejected. The larvae may mine more than one leaf (British leafminers). Elongate, rather irregular blotch. Most frass is ejected, what remains is concentrated in a few heaps. The larva makes several mines. Pupaton outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

On Anthoxanthum, Festuca, Hierochloe, Milium, Phalaris and Phragmites in Britain and elsewhere. Britain including Cambridge, Hereford and North Hants. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe.

Cosmopterix orichalcea Stainton, 1861 [Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae].



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