The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Scaptomyza flava (Fallén, 1823)
[Diptera: Drosophilidae]


Drosophila flava Fallén, 1823c. Geomyzides Sveciae : 7
Notiphila flaveola Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 66. [Synonymised by Bachli and Rocha Pite, 1984]
Scaptomyza apicalis Hardy, 1849b. Proc. Berwicksh. Nat. Club 2: 362. [Synonymised by Bachli and Rocha Pite, 1984]
Scaptomyza montana Wheeler, 1949. Univ. Tex. Publs 4921: 166. [Synonymised by Hackman, 1959].
Scaptomyza flava (Fallén, 1823c).


Leaf-mine: Corridor-blotch mine, normally dorsal; usually whitish; in small leaves it lies characteristically in the centre of the leaf often touching the petiole; in larger leaves it lies to one side of the mid-rib. Frass deposited in green clumps near the leaf margin. Pupation usually external, sometimes in a separate pupation mine.

Oviposition whitin the leaf, at the lower surface. The first part of the mine is a long, sometimes very long, corridor, that mostly will be overrun by the later developments. Generally this corridor is directed, frequently guided by a thick vein, to the midrib. The next section of the mine is large, irregular blotch overlying the basal section of the midrib. Locally large chunks of midrib tissue are consumed. From this central blotch excursions are made into the leaf blade: generally upper-surface, less often lower-surface and locally full-depth. In plants with narrow leaves, like Diplotaxis, the mine may occupy the entire width of the leaf. Often several larvae together in a mine. Frass blackish green, powdery, in clouds, sometimes along the sides of the corridors, later more in the periphery of the mine and in the end of extensions of the blotch, sometimes seemingly absent. (Often the frass can only be seen after the mine has been opened). Pupation generally in the ground, rarely within he leaf, in a short mine without frass. Hendel (1928a) described the biology, larva and puparium (Bladmineerders van Europa).

An initial narrow gallery then leads to a blotch on the midrib of the leaf (British leafminers).

Watch a video of a scaptomyzid fly larva on Arabidopsis on YouTube by mash92587.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Watch a video of a scaptomyzid fly larva on Arabidopsis on YouTube by mash92587.

The larva is described in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Comments: Chandler (1978) did not indicate whether his host records were British or Foreign and are therefore tentatively included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere'

Arabis glabra is treated as Turritis glabra (Tower Mustard) and Coronopus didymus is treated as Lepidium didymum (Lesser Swine-cress) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        

? Hypochaeris

      Chandler, 1978: 225
Brassicaceae        
Alliaria petiolata Garlic Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Barbarea vulgaris Winter-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Reared adults in OUM
Brassica       British leafminers
Brassica       Robbins, 1991: 31
Brassica       Reared adults in BMNH
Brassica campestris Wild Turnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Reared adults in BMNH
Brassica campestris Wild Turnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Reared adults in OUM
Brassica oleracea Wild Cabbage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Cheiranthus       British leafminers
Cochlearia officinalis Common Scurvygrass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Cochlearia officinalis Common Scurvygrass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Reared adults in BMNH
Coincya wrightii Lundy Cabbage   Compton and Key, 2000
Conringia       Pitkin & Plant
Diplotaxis tenuifolia Perennial Wall-rocket British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Erysimum       Robbins, 1991
? Eruca vesicaria Garden Rocket British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. pers. comm. Rob Edmunds
? Hesperis matronalis Dame's-violet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Reared adults in OUM
Lepidium       Pitkin & Plant
Lepidium latifolium Dittander British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Matthiola incana Hoary Stock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Reared adults in BMNH
Nasturtium officinale Water-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Chandler, 1978: 225
Raphanus sativus Garden Radish British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Reared adults in OUM
Sinapis       British leafminers
Sinapis       Robbins, 1991: 31
Sinapis arvensis Charlock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Fabaceae
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Rob Edmunds, pers. comm.
Papaveraceae        
? Chelidonium       Chandler, 1978: 225
? Papaver       Chandler, 1978: 225
Resedaceae        

? Reseda

      Chandler, 1978: 225
Tropaeolaceae        
Tropaeolum       Mines in BMNH
Tropaeolum       Robbins, 1991: 31
Tropaeolum       Bland, 1992
Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium   Pitkin & Plant
Violaceae        
Viola       Robbins, 1991: 31

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        

? Hypochaeris

      Chandler, 1978: 225
Hypochaeris       Hering, 1957
Brassicaceae        
Alliaria       Hering, 1957
Alliaria petiolata Garlic Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Alyssum       Hering, 1957
Alyssum       Bladmineerders van Europa
Anastatica       Hering, 1957
Arabidopsis       Hering, 1957
Arabidopsis thalaiana Thale Cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Arabis alpina Alpine Rock-cress   Bladmineerders van Europa
Arabis arenosa Sand Rock-cress  

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Cardaminopsis arenosa

Arabis glabra Tower Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Arabis hirsuta Hairy Rock-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Arabis       Hering, 1957
Armoracia rusticana Horse-Radish British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Aubrieta       Hering, 1957
Aubrieta deltoidea Aubretia   Bladmineerders van Europa
Barbarea       Hering, 1957
Barbarea stricta Small-flowered Winter-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Barbarea vulgaris Winter-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Berteroa       Hering, 1957
Berteroa incana Hoary Alison British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Biscutella       Hering, 1957
Brassica       Hering, 1957
Brassica campestris Wild Turnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Brassica napus Rape   Bladmineerders van Europa
Brassica nigra Black Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Brassica oleracea Wild Cabbage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Brassica rapa Turnip   Bladmineerders van Europa
Braya       Bladmineerders van Europa
Bunias       Hering, 1957
Bunias erucago Southern Warty-cabbage   Bladmineerders van Europa
Bunias orientalis Warty-cabbage   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cakile maritima Sea Rocket British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Calepina       Hering, 1957
Calepina       Bladmineerders van Europa
Camelina       Hering, 1957
Camelina       Bladmineerders van Europa
Capsella       Hering, 1957
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd's-purse British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Capsella heegeri     Bladmineerders van Europa
Capsella rubella Pink Shepherd's-purse   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cardamine       Hering, 1957
Cardamine amara Large Bitter-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cardamine bulbifera Coralroot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cardamine enneaphyllos     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cardamine glanduligera     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cardamine hirsuta Hairy Bitter-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cardamine impatiens Narrow-leaved Bitter-cress   Bladmineerders van Europa
Cardaminopsis       Hering, 1957
Cheiranthus       Bladmineerders van Europa
Cheiranthus       Hering, 1957
Cleome dodecandra     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cleome spinosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cochlearia       Hering, 1957
Cochlearia auriculata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Cochlearia officinalis Common Scurvygrass British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Conringia       Hering, 1957
Conringia orientalis Hare's-ear Mustard   Bladmineerders van Europa
Coronopus       Hering, 1957
Coronopus didymus Lesser Swine-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Crambe       Hering, 1957
Crambe cordifolia Greater Sea-kale British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Crambe koktebelica     Bladmineerders van Europa
Crambe maritima Sea-kale   Bladmineerders van Europa
Crambe tatarica     Bladmineerders van Europa
Diplotaxis       Hering, 1957
Diplotaxis muralis Annual Wall-rocket British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Diplotaxis tenuifolia Perennial Wall-rocket British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Draba       Hering, 1957
Draba       Bladmineerders van Europa
Eruca       Hering, 1957
Erysimum cheiranthoides Treacle-mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Erysimum helveticum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Erysimum sylvestre     Bladmineerders van Europa
Hesperis matronalis Dame's-violet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Hirschfeldia       Hering, 1957
Hirschfeldia incana Hoary Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Iberis       Hering, 1957
Iberis       Hering, 1957, as Aethionema
Iberis       Bladmineerders van Europa, as Aethionema
Iberis amara Wild Candytuft British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Iberis crenata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Iberis imperialis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Iberis odorata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Iberis pinnata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Iberis sempervirens Perennial Candytuft British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Isatis tinctoria Woad British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Isatis       Hering, 1957
Lepidium cartilagineum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Lepidium draba Hoary Cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Cardaria draba

Lobularia       Hering, 1957
Lobularia maritima Sweet Alison British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lunaria       Hering, 1957
Lunaria annua Honesty British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Malcolmia       Hering, 1957
Malcolmia africana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Matthiola       Hering, 1957
Moricandia       Hering, 1957
Moricandia arvensis Violet Cabbage   Bladmineerders van Europa
Myagrum       Hering, 1957
Myagrum perfoliatum Mitre Cress   Bladmineerders van Europa
Neslia       Hering, 1957
Peltaria       Hering, 1957
Raphanus       Hering, 1957
Raphanus raphanistrum Radish British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Raphanus sativus Garden Radish British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rhynchosinapis       Hering, 1957
Rorippa       Hering, 1957
Rorippa amphibia Great Yellow-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Rorippa palustris Marsh Yellow-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sinapis       Hering, 1957
Sinapis alba White Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sinapis arvensis Charlock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sisymbrium       Hering, 1957
Sisymbrium altissimum Tall Rocket British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sisymbrium officinale Hedge Mustard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sisymbrium orientale Eastern Rocket British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Sisymbrium supinum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Teesdalia       Hering, 1957
Teesdalia nudicaulis Shepherd's Cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Thlaspi       Hering, 1957
Thlaspi arvense Field Penny-cress British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Thlaspi brevistylum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Thlaspi perfoliatum Perfoliate Penny-cress   Bladmineerders van Europa
Zilla       Hering, 1957
Zilla spinosa     Bladmineerders van Europa
Fabaceae        
Anthyllis vulneraria Kidney Vetch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago       Bladmineerders van Europa
Medicago       Hering, 1957
Pisum       Hering, 1957
Pisum sativum Garden Pea   Bladmineerders van Europa
Trifolium       Hering, 1957
Papaveraceae        
Chelidonium       Hering, 1957
? Chelidonium       Chandler, 1978: 225
Meconopsis       Hering, 1957
? Papaver       Chandler, 1978: 225
Resedaceae        
Reseda       Hering, 1957
Reseda alba White Mignonette British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Reseda crystallina     Bladmineerders van Europa
Reseda lutea Wild Mignonette British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Reseda muricata     Bladmineerders van Europa
Reseda odorata Garden Mignonette   Bladmineerders van Europa
Tropaeolaceae        
Tropaeolum       Hering, 1957
Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium   Bladmineerders van Europa
Tropaeolum peregrinum Canary-creeper   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-August, October.

Time of year - adults: Adults appear to be most abundant in September.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: From Caithness in the north to Cornwall in the south. Warwickshire (Coventry) (Warwicks) (Robbins, 1991: 31), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992); Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cardiganshire (VC46), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cumberland (VC70), Denbighshire (VC50), Dorset (VC9), County Durham (VC66), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Merionethshire (VC48), Monmouthshire (VC35), Montgomeryshire (VC47), North Lincolnshire (VC54), North Somerset (VC6), South Northumberland (VC67), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Radnorshire (VC43), Shropshire (VC40), South Hampshire (VC11), South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Bächli, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Scaptomyza flava
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Gosseries, 1991a), Austria, Azores, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Create, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madeira, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - North and Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine (Bächli, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in the East Palaearctic, Near East and Neartic Region (Bächli, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Alliaria petiolata, Anthyllis vulneraria, Arabidopsis arenosa (= Arabis arenosa), Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabis alpina, Arabis glabra (= Turritis glabra), Arabis hirsuta, Armoracia rusticana, Aubrieta deltoidea, Barbarea stricta, Barbarea vulgaris, Berteroa incana, Brassica campestris, Brassica napus, Brassica nigra, Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Bunias erucago, Bunias orientalis, Cakile maritima, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Capsella rubella, Cardamine amara, Cardamine bulbifera, Cardamine hirsuta, Cardamine impatiens, Cakile maritima, Cochlearia officinalis, Coincya wrightii, Coronopus didymus (= Lepidium didymum), Crambe cordifolia, Crambe maritima, Diplotaxis muralis, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Erysimum cheiranthoides, ? Hesperis matronalis, Hirschfeldia incana, Iberis amara, Iberis crenata, Iberis sempervirens, Isatis tinctoria, Lepidium draba, Lepidium latifolium, Lobularia maritima, Lunaria annua, Malcolmia africana, Matthiola incana, Moricandia arvensis, Myagrum perfoliatum, Pisum sativum, Raphanus raphanistrum, Raphanus sativus, Reseda alba, Reseda lutea, Reseda odorata, Rorippa amphibia, Nasturtium officinale, Rorippa palustris, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, Sisymbrium altissimum, Sisymbrium officinale, Sisymbrium orientale, Teesdalia nudicaulis, Thlaspi arvense, Thlaspi perfoliatum, Tropaeolum majus, Tropaeolum peregrinum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis pallipes (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Spalangiopelta alata Boucek, 1953 Pteromalidae: Ceinae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Halticoptera patellana (Dalman, 1818) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa temula (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Stibeutes curvispina (Thomson, 1884) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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