The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytosciara halterata Lengersdorf, 1926
[Diptera: Sciaridae]


Sciara halterata Lengersdorf, 1926. Konowia 5: 250.
Phytosciara halterata Lengersdorf, 1926.


Leaf-mine: Full depth, initially a much branched corridor, irregular in width, in the end almost a blotch. The mine has openings by which part of the frass is ejected. The larvae frequently leave the mine to restart elsewhere. Older larva live free and cause window feeding, often erasing their old mines. In Coltsfoot also pseudo-mines are made, when the larva eats away the lower epidermis with the leaf tissue, but spares the dense hair cover (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue.

Elongate, without feet, but with a recognisable head capsule (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Comments: Ranunculus ficaria is treated as Ficaria verna (Lesser Celandine) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ranunculaceae        
Ranunculus       Menzel et al., 2006

Host elsewhere:

Adoxaceae        
Adoxa       Hering, 1957
Adoxa moschatellina Moschatel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Asteraceae        
Arctium lappa Greater Burdock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Arctium minus Greater Burdock British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carduus crispus Welted Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Carduus nutans Musk Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium oleraceum Cabbage Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Cirsium vulgare Spear Thistle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Petasites albus White Butterbur British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Senecio       Hering, 1957
Senecio ovatus Wood Ragwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Tussilago farfara Colt's-foot British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Boraginaceae        
Myosotis       Hering, 1957
Myosotis palustris Common Water Forget-Me-Not   Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosotis sylvatica Wood Forget-me-not British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pulmonaria officinalis Lungwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Brassicaceae        
Lobularia maritima Sweet Alison British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Caryophyllaceae        
Silene dioica Red Campion British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamiaceae        
Glechoma hederacea Ground-ivy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lamium maculatum Spotted Dead-nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Lycopus europaeus Gypsywort   Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunella vulgaris Selfheal British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Stachys sylvatica Hedge Woundwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Menyanthaceae        
Menyanthes       Hering, 1957
Plantaginaceae        
Plantago major Greater Plantain British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculaceae        
Caltha       Hering, 1957
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus       Hering, 1957
Ranunculus acris     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Ranunculus acer
Ranunculus breyninus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus lanuginosus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Saxifragaceae        
Chrysosplenium       Hering, 1957
Chrysosplenium alternifolium Alternate-leaved Golden-saxifrage British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: Currently unknown.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Currently unknown.

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phytosciara halterata
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany and Poland (Heller, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Adoxa moschatellina, Arctium lappa, Arctium minus, Caltha palustris, Carduus crispus, Carduus nutans, Chrysosplenium alternifolium, Cirsium arvense, Cirsium oleraceum, Cirsium palustre, Cirsium vulgare, Glechoma hederacea, Lamium maculatum, Lobularia maritima, Lycopus europaeus, Myosotis palustris, Myosotis sylvatica, Petasites albus, Plantago major, Prunella vulgaris, Pulmonaria officinalis, Ranunculus acris, Ranunculus ficaria (= Ficaria verna), Ranunculus repens, Senecio ovatus, Silene dioica, Stachys sylvatica, Tussilago farfara

Also recorded in Algeria.

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.

 


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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