The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza ranunculi (Schrank, 1803)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Musca ranunculi Schrank, 1803. Fauna boica 3(1): 140
Phytomyza flava Fallén, 1823b. Phytomyzides et Ochtidiae Sveciae : 3
Phytomyza flavoscutellata Fallén, 1823b. Phytomyzides et Ochtidiae Sveciae : 4.
Phytomyza terminalis Meigen, 1830. Syst. Beschr. 6: 195
Phytomyza ranunculi (Schrank, 1803); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 70 (figs 229-230A), 71, 75, 119
Phytomyza ranunculi (Schrank, 1803); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 480-2, figs 845-848A.
Phytomyza ranunculi (Schrank, 1803); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 22, 41, 43, 44 (fig. 156) 50, 190.


Leaf-mine: Larva forms a conspicuous white linear mine with frass in closely adjoining grains. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b:70 (figs 229-230A), 75; Spencer, 1976: 481, 483 (figs. 846, 848A)).

Rather long, somewaht untidy, upper-surface corridor. Frass in many small grains that are close together of form pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The frass, in the long upper-surface white corridor, look like strings of pearls. P.ranunculivora makes similar long linear mines but in this species the frass grains are separate (British leafminers).

The mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926), Sasakawa (1961), Dempewolf (2001: 195) and illustrated im Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Greyish or brown; posterior spiracles each with about 18-20 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 481). The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and the Encyclopedia of Life.

Phytomyza ranunculi puparium
Phytomyza ranunculi puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Adult: The adult is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.

Comments: Ranunculus ficaria is treated as Ficaria verna (Lesser Celandine) by Stace (2010).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ranunculaceae        
Ranunculus       Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus       Robbins, 1989: 26
Ranunculus       British leafminers
Ranunculus       Spencer, 1972b: 75
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 27
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Ranunculus bulbosus Bulbous Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus bulbosus Bulbous Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 27
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 27
Ranunculus flammula Lesser Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Ranunculus flammula Lesser Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus flammula Lesser Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 27
Ranunculus flammula Lesser Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Ranunculus lingua Greater Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Ranunculus lingua Greater Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus lingua Greater Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 27
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 119
Ranunculus sardous Hairy Buttercup   Mines in BMNH

Hosts elsewhere:

Ranunculaceae        
Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myosurus       Hering, 1957
Myosurus       Spencer, 1990: 22
Myosurus minimus Mousetail British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus       Spencer, 1976: 481
Ranunculus       Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus       Spencer, 1990: 22
Ranunculus aconitifolius Aconite-leaved Buttercup   Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 481
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus alpestris     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus arvensis Corn Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus auricomus Goldilocks Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus bulbosus Bulbous Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus flammula Lesser Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus gramineus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus lanuginosus     Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus lingua Greater Spearwort British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus lomatocarpus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus montanus     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus philonotis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus polyanthemos     Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 481
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 195
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus sceleratus Celery-leaved Buttercup British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Ranunculus thora     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: February, May-November.

Time of year - adults: August.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Common and widespread throughout England and Scotland, generally distributed (Spencer, 1972b: 75) including Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Warwickshire (Brandon and Foleshill) (Robbins, 1991: 27), Channel Is. (Martinez in Fauna Europaea); Berkshire (VC22), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cardiganshire (VC46), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Isle of Wight (VC10), Leicestershire (VC55), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Hampshire (VC12), North Lincolnshire (VC54), North Somerset (VC6), North-east Yorkshire (VC62), Radnorshire (VC43), Shropshire (VC40), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), West Sussex (VC13) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in Ireland (Spencer, 1972b: 75).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phytomyza ranunculi
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread throughout Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 481), Germany, Sweden, The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991; Scheirs, de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1999), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 578; Dempewolf, 2001: 195), Austria, Azores, Belarus, Canary Is., Czech Republic, Estonia, European Turkey, Faroe Is., French mainland, Hungary, Iceland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Madeira, Republic of Moldova, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Range extending to the Kirghiz Republic of the [former] U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 481).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1976: 480), Chile (Mines in BMNH) and Japan (Spencer, 1990: 41).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Anemone nemorosa, Myosurus minimus, Ranunculus aconitifolius, Ranunculus acris, Ranunculus arvensis, Ranunculus bulbosus, Ranunculus ficaria (= Ficaria verna), Ranunculus flammula, Ranunculus lingua, Ranunculus repens, Ranunculus sardous, Ranunculus scleratus

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis idyia (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius metallicus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus chabrias (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus minoeus (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Diglyphus pusztensis (Erdös and Novicky, 1951) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus ornatus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Hemiptarsenus unguicellus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Necremnus tidius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Miscogaster elegans Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Stenomalina gracilis (Walker, 1934) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Epiclerus panyas (Walker, 1839) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus kama (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa areolaris (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa confinis Ruthe, 1859 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laeta (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa macrospila (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa melicerta (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa sibirica Telenga, 1935 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dapsilarthra sylvia (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela gilvipes (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Apodesmia posticatae (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius orbiculator (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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