The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925. Z. Morph. Okol. Tiere 4: 507
Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925; Hendel, 1934. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 343
Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 70 (fig. 225)Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g), 73, 118, fig. 225
Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 373-4, fig. 652.
Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 21, 27, 28 (figs 52-3).


Leaf-mine: Mine linear but normally developing into secondary blotch, feeding confined to apex of a leaf segment (Spencer, 1972b: 70 (fig. 225); Spencer, 1976: 374, 375 (fig. 652)). Pupation normally external, but Lundquist (1947) records that 8 of 10 larvae pupariumted in the mine in Sweden.

The mine is also dexcribed and illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Described by Hering (1967a, as clematobia); mandible two-teethed alternating; anterior spiracles fist-shaped with 9 bulbs, posterior spiracles with 13 bulbs, arranged in a horse shoe (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown; posterior spiracular processes extended, each with up to 18 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 374).

Reddish-brown, with the rear spiracula conspicuously elongated (depicted in Hering, 1925b and de Meijere, 1937a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Ranunculaceae        
Anemone       Spencer, 1972b: 73
Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 118

Hosts elsewhere:

Ranunculaceae        
Anemone       Spencer, 1990: 21
Anemone coronaria Poppy Anemone   Bladmineerders van Europa
Anemone coronaria Poppy Anemone   Mines in BMNH
Anemone hortensis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 374
Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 27
Clematis flammula Virgin's-bower British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: May.

Time of year - adults: April. A single generation.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Sussex (Chailey), Gloucestershire (Gloucester - mines) (Spencer, 1972b: 73); East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), North-east Yorkshire (VC62), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN Gateway). Also Flatropers Wood, Beckley, East Sussex (British leafminers).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phytomyza anemones
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 374), Germany, Italy (Bladmineerders van Europa), Lithuania, Malta and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Anemone coronaria, Anemone nemorosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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