Mine narrow, irregular linear; initially on lower surface but mainly
upper surface. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1972b: 87).
lower-surface, later upper-surface corridor, not appreciably widening
towards the end. Corridor often strongly contorted. Frass in rather
coarse grains, irregularly scattered. Pupation in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by de Meijere (1926,
as Phytomyza sp. on Aster tripolium); de Meijere (1928);
de Meijere (1934, as Ph.
tenella) and Griffiths (1976c).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Whitish; posterior spiracles each with a circle of up to 25 bulbs
(Spencer, 1976: 388).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: July-October.
of year - adults: July or January the following year.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread around coasts. Records
for Britain include Kent (Faversham) (Spencer, 1972b: 87), Stirling (Higginsneuk) and North Uist (Oban Trumisgarry)
(Bland, 1994c: 83) and East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41) and West Norfolk (VC28), (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Dunratty and Poulnaclough
Bay) and Co. Down (Corlingford Loch) (Spencer, 1972b: 87).
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, France, Germany
(Spencer, 1976: 388), The
Netherlands, Belgium (Kabos, 1971;
Collart, 1942), Czech Republic,
Poland, Slovenia and Sweden (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: