The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Yponomeuta padella (Linnaeus, 1758)
[Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae]

Orchard Ermine

Yponomeuta padella (Linnaeus, 1758)

Leaf-miner: The eggs, laid on the spines (usually) or the stem, may hatch in about three weeks or overwinter. In Spring they mine the leaves or feed in buds. They then feed gregariously in a web, which extends as they consume the food source and, in severe infestations, the whole tree may be affected (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

The larva is illustrated in UKMoths.

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The pupa and cocoon are illustrated in UKMoths.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The species is included in

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Crataegus spp.     British leafminers
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Prunus spp.     British leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Crataegus       Belgian Lepidoptera
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Belgian Lepidoptera
Prunus cerasifera     Belgian Lepidoptera
Prunus spinosa and Prunus cerasifera
Host plant (genera):

Time of year - larvae: March-April (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Anglesey, Banffshire, Bedfordshire, Breconshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Carmarthenshire, Cheshire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Dorset, Dumfriesshire, Durham, East Cornwall, East Gloucestershire, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, Fife, Glamorgan, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Isle of Man, Kincardineshire, Leicestershire, Linlithgow, Main Argyll, Merionethshire, Mid-west Yorkshire, Middlesex, Montgomeryshire, North Aberdeenshire, North Essex, North Northumberland, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, Nottinghamshire, Outer Hebrides, Pembrokeshire, Radnorshire, Shropshire, South Devon, South Northumberland, South Lancashire, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Cornwall with Scilly, West Gloucestershire, West Cornwall, West Lancashire, West Norfolk, West Perthshire, West Suffolk, Westmorland, Wigtownshire and Worcestershire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Channel Is. and Republic of Ireland (Fauna Europaea and National Biodiversity Data Centre Map).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Gibraltar, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia (Central), Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Prunus spinosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Brachymeria minuta (Linnaeus, 1767) Chacididae : Chalcidinae
Ageniaspis atricollis (Dalman, 1820) Encyrtidae: Encyrtinae
Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman, 1820) Encyrtidae: Encyrtinae
Pediobius pyrgo (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe, 1832) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Baryscapus adalia (Walker 1839) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Baryscapus evonymellae (Bouché, 1834) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Baryscapus szöcsi (Erdös, 1958) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Mesopolobus mediterraneus (Mayr, 1903) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Pteromalus chrysos Walker, 1836 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Pteromalus semotus (Walker, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea - Links to species no longer available  
Lytopylus rufipes (Nees, 1814) Braconidae: Agathidinae
Bracon hebetor Say, 1836 Braconidae: Braconinae
Ascogaster annularis (Nees, 1816) Braconidae: Cheloninae
Ascogaster quadridentata Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Cheloninae
Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Cheloninae
Ascogaster rufipes (Latreille, 1809) Braconidae: Cheloninae
Chelonus annulatus (Nees, 1816) Braconidae: Cheloninae
Macrocentrus thoracicus (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Macrocentrinae
Glyptapanteles lateralis (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Glyptapanteles vitripennis (Curtis, 1830) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Meteorus ictericus (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Meteorinae
Choeras parasitellae (Bouché, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Choeras ruficornis (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Cotesia analis (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Cotesia tenebros (Wesmael, 1837) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Dolichogenidea dilecta (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Orgilus punctulator (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Orgilinae
Agrypon flaveolatum (Gravenhorst 1807) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Agrypon flexorium (Thunberg 1822) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Anomalon anxium (Wesmael, 1849) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Anomalon batis (Ratzeburg, 1855) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Anomalon cerinops (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Anomalon clandestinum (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Anomalon varitarsum (Wesmael, 1849) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Heteropelma megarthrum (Ratzeburg, 1848) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Lissonota punctiventris Thomson, 1877 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Campoplex difformis (Gmelin, 1790) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Campoplex rufipes Gravenhorst, 1829 Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma armillatum (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma fenestrale (Holmgren, 1860) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma majale (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Enytus apostatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Nemeritis macrocentra (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Olesicampe macellator (Thunberg, 1822) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Sinophorus albidus (Gmelin, 1790) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Acrolyta marginata (Bridgman 1883) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Diaglyptidea conformis (Gmelin, 1790) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Dichrogaster heteropus (Thomson, 1896) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis agilis (Fabricius, 1775) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis albipalpus (Thomson, 1884) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis areator (Panzer, 1804) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis fallax (Förster 1850) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis fuscicornis (Retzius, 1783) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis hortensis (Christ, 1791) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis intermedius (Förster, 1850) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis mutillatus (Gmelin, 1790) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Gelis trux (Förster, 1850) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Lysibia nana (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Medophron crassicornis (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Hyperacmus crassicornis (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Cylloceriinae
Alexeter multicolor (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Euryproctinae
Campodorus molestus (Holmgren, 1857) Ichneumonidae: Euryproctinae
Cyclolabus nigricollis (Wesmael, 1845) Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae
Diphyus quadripunctorius (Müller, 1776) Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae
Dirophanes callopus (Wesmael, 1845) Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae
Dirophanes fulvitarsis (Wesmael, 1845) Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae
Dirophanes invisor (Thunberg 1822) Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae
Hemichneumon subdolus Wesmael, 1857 Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae
Herpestomus brunnicornis (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae
Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, 1859 Ichneumonidae: Lycorininae
Mesochorus brevipetiolatus Ratzeburg, 1844 Ichneumonidae: Mesochorinae
Mesochorus cimbicis Ratzeburg, 1844 Ichneumonidae: Mesochorinae
Mesochorus globulator (Thunberg, 1822) Ichneumonidae: Mesochorinae
Mesochorus pallipes Brischke, 1880 Ichneumonidae: Mesochorinae
Mesochorus stigmator (Thunberg, 1822) Ichneumonidae: Mesochorinae
Mesochorus tetricus Holmgren, 1860 Ichneumonidae: Mesochorinae
Chorinaeus cristator (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Metopinae
Chorinaeus funebris (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Metopinae
Exochus consimilis Holmgren, 1858 Ichneumonidae: Metopinae
Exochus gravipes (Gravenhorst 1820) Ichneumonidae: Metopinae
Exochus lentipes Gravenhorst, 1829 Ichneumonidae: Metopinae
Exochus mitratus Gravenhorst, 1829 Ichneumonidae: Metopinae
Hypsicera curvator (Fabricius, 1793) Ichneumonidae: Metopinae
Trieces tricarinatus (Holmgren, 1858) Ichneumonidae: Metopinae
Plectiscidea zonata (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae
Dolichomitus tuberculatus (Geoffroy, 1785) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Gregopimpla inquisitor (Scopoli, 1763) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Iseropus stercorator (Fabricius, 1793) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Itoplectis alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Itoplectis maculator (Fabricius, 1775) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Pimpla contemplator (Müller, 1776) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Pimpla spuria Gravenhorst, 1829 Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Pimpla turionellae (Linnaeus, 1758) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Theronia atalantae (Poda, 1761) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Phytodietus polyzonias (Förster, 1771) Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae

External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 12-Jul-2019  Brian Pitkin Top of page