The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Spilonota ocellana (Denis & Schiffermmüller, 1775)
[Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]

Bud moth

Spilonota ocellana (Denis & Schiffermmüller, 1775)

Leaf-miner: The young larva lives in a silken tube, open at both ends, on the underside of a leaf. Occasionally one makes an irregular brownish corridor or blotch. How often this happens perhaps differs regionally. Hering (1957a) describes the species as a full blown miner, but Bradley et al (1979a) make no mention of a mining habit, not even facultatively (Bladmineerders van Europa).


Mine of |SPilonota ocellana
Mine of Spilonota ocellana
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Larva: Body reddish brown, head and prothoracic plate blackish brown, anal plate brown. Abdominal prolegs darkly chitinised laterally, with a double circle of c. 36 crochets. Under strong magnification the integument appears covered with a microscopical brown spinulation (Swatschek, 1958a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

See Patocka and Turcáni (2005a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The species is included in

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland: Currently unconfirmed.

Hosts elsewhere:

Hippophae rhamnoides   British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Myrica gale   British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Comment: Bradley et al. (1979a) additionally list a long series of Rosaceae; the only plant genera about which they agree with Hering are the two mentioned above (Bladmineerders van Europa.

Time of year - larvae: July - October; after hibernation they live free among spun leaves (Hering, 1957a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Time of year - adults: July and August (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: It is quite common over much of Britain, especially the south (UKMoths); Anglesey, Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Breconshire, Caernarvonshire, Cambridgeshire, Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire, Cumberland, Denbighshire, Derbyshire, Durham, East Cornwall, East Gloucestershire, East Kent, East Norfolk, East Suffolk, East Sussex, Flintshire, Glamorgam, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Isle of Wight, Kincardineshire, Kirkudbrightshire, Leicestershire, Linlithgow, North Aberdeeen, North Devon, North Essex, North Hampshire, North Northumberland, North Somerset, North Wiltshire, Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Pembrokeshire, Radnorshire, Shropshire, South Aberdeen, South Devon, South Hampshire, South Lancashire, South Northumberland, South Wiltshire, South-east Yorkshire, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Cornwall, West Gloucestershire, West Kent, West Lancashire, West Norfolk, West Perth, West Suffolk, West Sussex, Westmorland, Wigtownshire and Wrocestershire (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzogovina, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madeira, Malta, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portugueses mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, North-west, South and East, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands. Also recorded in East Palaearctic, Near East, Nearctic and North Africa (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:


British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis laricinellae (Ratzeburg, 1848) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Euderus albitarsis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entiinae
Colpoclypeus florus (Walker 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Elachertus fenestratus Nees, 1834 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cyclogastrella simplex (Walker, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea - Links to species no longer available  
Agathis breviseta Nees, 1812 Braconidae: Agathidinae
Agathis fuscipennis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Braconidae: Agathidinae
Lytopylus rufipes (Nees, 1814) Braconidae: Agathidinae
Therophilus cingulipes (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Agathidinae
Therophilus clausthalianus (Ratzeburg, 1852) Braconidae: Agathidinae
Therophilus dimidiator (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Agathidinae
Bracon hebetor Say, 1836 Braconidae: Braconinae
Bracon obscurator Nees, 1811 Braconidae: Braconinae
Charmon extensor (Linnaeus, 1758) Braconidae: Charmontinae
Charmon cruentatus Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Charmontinae
Ascogaster annularis (Nees, 1816) Braconidae: Cheloninae
Ascogaster quadridentata Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Cheloninae
Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Cheloninae
Phanerotoma dentata (Panzer, 1805) Braconidae: Cheloninae
Macrocentrus pallipes (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Macrocentrinae
Macrocentrus thoracicus (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Macrocentrinae
Meteorus ictericus (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Meteorinae
Meteorus pendulus (Müller, 1776) Braconidae: Meteorinae
Dolichogenidea appellator (Telenga, 1949) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Dolichogenidea candidata (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Dolichogenidea gagates (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Dolichogenidea sicaria (Marshall, 1885) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Microgaster globata (Linnaeus, 1758) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Apanteles sodalis (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Oncophanes minutus (Wesmael, 1838) Braconidae: Rhyssalinae
Orgilus ischnus Marshall, 1898 Braconidae: Orgilinae
Anomalon anxium (Wesmael, 1849) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Anomalon geniculata (Holmgren, 1857) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Parania geniculata (Holmgren, 1857) Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae
Lissonota carbonaria Holmgren, 1860 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Lissonota culiciformis Gravenhorst, 1829 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Lissonota folii Thomson, 1877 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Glypta femorator Desvignes, 1856 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Glypta haesitator Gravenhorst, 1829 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Glypta nigrina Desvignes, 1856 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Glypta pedata Desvignes, 1856 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Glypta scutellaris Thomson, 1889 Ichneumonidae: Banchinae
Campoplex difformis (Gmelin, 1790) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Campoplex interruptus Horstmann, 1993 Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma armillatum (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Enytus apostatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Tranosemella praerogator (Linnaeus, 1758) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Pristomerus armatus (Lucas, 1849) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Pristomerus vulnerator (Panzer, 1799) Ichneumonidae: Cremastinae
Mesochorus pallipes Brischke, 1880 Ichneumonidae: Mesochorinae
Itoplectis alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Itoplectis aterrima Jussila, 1965 Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Itoplectis maculator (Fabricius, 1775) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus brevicornis (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus calobatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus sagax (Hartig, 1838) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Oedemopsis scabricula (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae

External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 11-Jul-2019  Brian Pitkin Top of page