The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


SILAUM. Pepper-saxifrage. [Apiaceae]

Only one species of Silaum is recorded in Britain, the introduced Pepper-saxifrage (S. silaus).

Three British miners are recorded on Silaum.

The agromyzid Melanagromyza nibletti bores the stems of Silaum in southern England elsewhere.

A key to the European miners recorded on Silaum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Silaum

1a > Leaf-miner: Larva mining initially on lower surface of leaf, later filling the tip of the leaf on the upper surface with a linear blotch mine (Spencer, 1972b: 77).

The mine starts with a lower-surface, relatively wide corridor. After its first moult the larva continues upper-surface, its mine in the end entirely occupying several leaf segmets (Allen, 1956a; Hering, 1957). Frass in rather coarse granules. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in upper epidermis.

On Silaum silaus in Britain and elsewhere. Only recorded from Surrey, Cambridge and Warwick in Britain. and Germany and Poland in continental Europe.

Phytomyza silai Hering, 1935 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: A linear mine rigidly following the margin of the leaf segment.

On Pimpinella major and Pimpinella saxifraga in Britain and elsewhere. Possibly on Silaum silaus in Britain. Only recorded from Middlesex and Warwick in Britain. Widespread in continental Europe.

Phytomyza adjuncta Hering, 1928 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1c > Leaf-miner: The larvae are often gregarious and feed on the underside of the leaf causing a 'windowing' effect as they eat the mesophyll and lower epidermis. This effect can be seen from the top of the leaf as it discolours. Short, small, irregular, sometimes widened corridor. Mostly a number in a leaf, concentrated in the axils of the midrib and the primary side veins. Each larva makes a number of mines. Often the larva protrudes with its rear end out of the mine, causing most frass to be ejected. While moving, at the leaf underside, silken threads are produced, in wich grains of frass may be trapped. Older larvae live free and cause window feeding, often in a group under a light spinning.

Polyphagous. On Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus sylvestris, Daucus carota, Heracleum sphondylium and Heracleum sativa, but not yet on Silaum, in Britain and Aegopodium podagraria, Angelica archangelica subsp. litoralis, Angelica sylvestris, Anthriscus caucalis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Anthriscus sylvestris, Apium graveolens, Berula erecta, Carum carvi, Chaerophyllum hirsutum, Chaerophyllum temulum, Cicuta virosa, Conium maculatum, Daucus carota, Heracleum sphondylium, Levisticum officinale, Oenanthe, Pastinaca sativa, Peucedanum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Seseli libanotis, Silaum, Sium latifolium, Sison amomum and Torilis elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe.

Epermenia chaerophyllella (Goeze, 1783) [Lepidoptera: Epermeniidae].

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