The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


POLYGONATUM. Solomon's-seals. [Asparagaceae]

Four species of Polygonatum are recorded in Britain. These include the native Solomon's-seal (P. multiflorum), Garden Solomon's-seal (P. x hydridum) Angular Solomon's-seal (P. odoratum) and Whorled Solomon's-seal (P. verticillatum).

Whorled Solomon's-seal (P. verticillatum) is protected under Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981.

Only one British miner is recorded on Polygonatum.

A key to the European miners recorded on Polygonatum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa. This includes Americina vittata, currently treated as Paralleloma vittatum, a leafminer of Orchidaceae.

Garden Solomon's-seal - Polygonatum x hybridum. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Garden Solomon's-seal
Polygonatum x hybridum

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Polygonatum

1 > Leaf-miner: Large blotch with a group of some larvae. At the start of the mine a group of elliptic egg shells.

Forms large blotch mines (as shown). The larval development is rapid (taking only 13 days). The puparial stage then lasts for around 348 days, with adults emerging in May and June.

Mine of Americina vittata on Paris quadrifolia. Mine of Americina vittata on Paris quadrifolia
Mine of Paralleloma paridis on Paris quadrifolia
Image: © Brian Pitkin

On Paris and Polygonatum in Britain. On Convallaria, Maianthemum, Paris, Plantanthera and Polygonatum eslewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded from the Nearctic region

Parallelomma paridis (Hering, 1923) [Diptera: Scathophagidae].

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