The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds



LABURNUM. Laburnums. [Fabaceae]

Two species of Laburnum, Laburnum (L. anagyroides) and Scottish Laburnum (L. alpinum), are recorded in Britain. Both are introduced. The BSBI provide a downloadable plant crib for Laburnum

Five British miners miners are recorded on Laburnum.

A key to the European miners recorded on Laburnum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Laburnum - Laburnum anagyroides. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Laburnum anagyroides

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Laburnum

1a > Leaf-miner: Larva initially forming a narrow linear leaf-mine, adjoining margin of leaf; later forming a broad blotch, with conspicuously greenish-diffused frass (Spencer, 1972b: 37, fig. 109; Spencer, 1976: 103, fig. 157).

Hooklike, upper-surface secondary blotch. The mine starts as a rather narrow corridor in the centre of the leaf. From there the corridor runs in the direction of the leaf margin, not much widening, and quite tortuous. Once the leaf margin is reached the mine suddenly starts to widen strongly; often then also the direction of the mine switches. Frass deliquescent, in a wide, bright green central band. Primary and secondary feeding lines very prominent. Older mines wither and turn brown, later white. Pupation outside the mine.

An upper surface gallery along one margin towards the tip, enlarging into a blotch on the other margin. Frass pale green when fresh, brownish later.

Puparium orange

On Laburnum anagyroides in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in England and continental Europe.

Agromyza demeijerei Hendel, 1920 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf-miner: An irregular whitish, linear mine, frass in conspicuous black strips (Spencer, 1972b: 72 (fig. 235), 77; Spencer, 1976: 409 (fig. 717), 410).

Wide corridor, generally upper-surface but not rarely, partly or entirely, lower-surface. Primary feeding lines distinct. Frass at first in grains, later in short thread fragments to two close rows along the sides. Pupation outside the mine.

An irregular, whitish gallery, usually upper side, but sometimes starting lower side. Frass conspicuous.

On Laburnum anagyroides in Britain and elsewhere also on Cytisus. Widespread in Britain. Common in western Europe.

Phytomyza cytisi Brischke, 1880 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1c > Leaf-miner: The mine is upper side and silvery, over the midrib. Leaf later may fold upwards, concealing the mine. Oviposition is on the base of the midrib. From there an epidermal corridor is made, running towards the leaf tip. The corridor then is widened into an epidermal, silvery blotch, finally into a longitudinally contracted tentiform mine. Frass in fine, shining grains, mostly in a line over the midrib, rarely in a mass in a corner of the mine. The epidermis of the mine has a number of yellow spots, but never the black specks that are apparent in P. corylifoliella.

Polyphagous. On Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Fagus, Laburnum, Malus, Pyracantha, Pyrus and Sorbus in Britain and additionally Chaenomeles elsewhere. Widespread in England, southern Scotland and continental Europe.

Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller, 1850) [Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: An irregular gallery filled with greenish frass, leading to a circular or oval blotch with blackish frass arranged in a spiral fashion. The very first part of the mine is a densely contorted corridor of about 2 mm long, that quickly turns brown. It is followed by a more or less straight corridor of c. 10 mm, entirely filled with greyish green frass. This suddenly widens into a round blotch that during its expansion overruns the earlier corridor and in the end may occupy half of a Laburnum leaflet. The frass, greenish at first, black later, is deposited in the bloth in roughly concentric arcs, glued to the upper epidermis. Pupation external, exit slit in upper epidermis.

On Cytsisus, Genista, Laburnum, Lupinus and Piptanthus in Britain and Astragalus, Chamaecytisus, Genista, Laburnum, Laburnocytisus, Lupinus and Petteria elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Euorpe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland.

Leucoptera laburnella (Stainton, 1851) [Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae].

1e > Leaf-miner: Upper-surface tentiform mine (according to Hering, 1957a, mostly lower-surface in Laburnum). The mine is strongly contracted, almost folding the leaflet to a pod and concealing the mine. Pupa in the mine in a flimsy cocoon. Frass in a corner of the mine.

On Genista, but not yet on Laburnum, in Britain and Chamaecytisus, Cytisus, Genista and Laburnum elsewhere. Britain including West Cornwall. Widespread in continental Europe.

Phyllonorycter staintoniella (Nicelli, 1853) [Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae].

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