The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


GYMNADENIA. Fragrant orchid. [Orchidaceae]

Two species and numerous subspecies and hybrids of Gymnadenia are recorded in Britain. All are native and include Fragrant Orchid (G. conopsea). The BSBI provide a downloadable plant crib for Gymnadenia.

Only one British miner is recorded on Gymnadenia.

A key to the European miners recorded on Gymnadenia is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Fragrant orchid - Gymnadenia conopsea. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Fragrant orchid
Gymnadenia conopsea

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Gymnadenia

1 > Leaf-miner: Large blotch with a group of some larvae. At the start of the mine a group of elliptic egg shells.

The larvae make individual mines which then merge to form an upper surface blotch. The larva leaves the mine to pupate.

On Listera, but not yet on Gymnadenia, in Britain, but not common. On Cephalanthera, Cypripedium, Dactylorhiza, Epipactis, Gymnadenia, Ophrys and Orchis elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and from the Nearctic region

Parallelomma vittatum (Hering, 1826) [Diptera: Scathophagidae].

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