The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


CLEMATIS. Traveller's Joy, Clematis and Virgin's-bowers. [Ranunculaceae]

Traveller's-joy (C. vitalba) is the only native species of Clematis in Britain, although six other species have been introduced including Virgin's-bower (C. flammula), Early Virgin's-bower (C. cirrhosa), Himalayan Clematis (C. montana), Orange-peel Clematis (C. tangutica) and Purple Clematis (C. viticella).

Four British miners are recorded on Clematis.

The agromyzid Phytomyza clematidis is recorded feeding in the seed head of Clematis vitalba in Britain and elsewhere.

A key to the European miners recorded on Clematis is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Wooly Thistle - Cirsium eriophorum. Image: © Brian Pitkin
Clematis vitalba

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Clematis

1a > Leaf miner: Mine beginning on lower surface, the linear upper surface section eaten out somewhat irregularly at sides (Spencer, 1972b: 80).

Corridor mine; the corridor begins with a lower-surface spiral or patch. The upper-surface corridor that follows has very irregular sides, and frass in long pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine.

A narrow gallery similar to P. vitalbae, but starting on the lower surface. The linear upper section eaten out irregularly at sides.

On Clematis in Britain and elsewhere. Uncommon. Widespread in continental Europe

Phytomyza fulgens Hendel, 1920 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1b > Leaf miner:. A long narrow upper surface mine. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 70 (fig. 227), 73; Spencer, 1976: 525, 526 (fig. 920)).

Oviposition in the leaf lower surface. After a short initial corridor of a few mm length the larva makes an upper-surface corridor that mostly begins with a dense knot in the leaf tip. Frass in long pearl chains along the sides. In fresh material primary feeding lines are apparent. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in the lower epidermis. The mine often causes the leaf to be malformed and wrinkled. Feeding punctures in the lower surface.

The larva forms a long narrow upper surface mine. Most mines start close to the leaf tip. The larva exits through a slit. Pupation is external.

On Clematis in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in S.E. England, also in S. Wales. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland. Widespread in continental Europe

Phytomyza vitalbae Kaltenbach, 1872 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1c > Leaf miner: The first instar larva forms a shallow winding linear mine on the underside of the leaf, later forming a broad upper surface mine (Spencer, 1976: 436); initially frass in a narrow central line which after the larva moves to the upperside of the leaf is in irregular black lumps. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1976: 436).

On Clematis in Britain and Clematis and Actaea elsewhere. Distribution in Britain unknown. Widespread in continental Europe

Phytomyza kaltenbachi Hendel, 1922 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

1d > Leaf-miner: Mine linear but normally developing into secondary blotch, feeding confined to apex of a leaf segment (Spencer, 1972b: 70 (fig. 225); Spencer, 1976: 374, 375 (fig. 652)). Pupation normally external, but Lundquist (1947) records that 8 of 10 larvae pupariumted in the mine in Sweden.

The mine is also dexcribed and illustrated in British leafminers.

On Anemone, but not yet on Clematis, in Britain and elsewhere. Widespread in England and continental Europe. Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland

Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925 [Diptera: Agromyzidae].

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