The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


BLECHNUM. Hard ferns. [Blechnaceae]

Hard Fern (B. spicant) is the only native species of Blechnum recorded in Britain, although Chilean Hard-fern (B. cordatum) and Antarctic Hard-fern (B. penna-marina) have been introduced.

Only one British miner is recorded on Blechnum.

A key to the European miners recorded on Blechnum is provided in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Key for the identification of the known mines of British
insects (Diptera and non-Diptera) recorded on Blechnum

1 > Leaf-miner: Large full depth blotch, covering the entire distal part of a pinnula. The mine begins near the top, where an elliptic egg shell is attached to the underside of the rachis. Larva solitary. The mine contains much frass.

An upperside blotch at the tip of a pinna lobe.

On Pteridium and Dryopteris, but not yet on Blechnum, in Britain and continental Europe and additional other genera of ferns elsewhere. Widespread in Britain and continental Europe. Also recorded in East Palaearctic and Near East.

Chirosia histricina Rondani, 1866 [Diptera: Anthomyiidae].

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