The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Phytobia carbonaria (Zetterstedt, 1848)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza carbonaria Zetterstedt, 1848. Dipt. Scand. 7: 2739
Dizygomyza (Dendromyza) latigenis Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 28
Phytobia carbonaria (Zetterstedt, 1848); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 40 (fig. 128), 44, 119
Phytobia carbonaria (Zetterstedt, 1848); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 153-5, figs 278-80.
Phytobia carbonaria (Zetterstedt, 1848); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 102, 106 (fig. 378).

Stem-borer: Larva at first feeds upwards in the previous year's wood and later turns to feed downwards sometimes penetrating the root. Pupation in the ground (Spencer, 1976: 154).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larval mouth-parts have one strong and one smaller tooth and a strongly chitinised area behind, the lower arm of the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton is conspicuously short (Spencer, 1976: 153, 154 (fig. 279)). The posterior spiracular processes are closely adjoiningg, each with three minute pores and there is a single pointed protuberance above the anus (Spencer, 1976: 154 (fig. 280)).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown (Spencer, 1976: 154).

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Crataegus       Spencer, 1972b: 119
Malus       Spencer, 1972b: 119

Hosts elsewhere:

Crataegus       Spencer, 1976: 153
Crataegus       Spencer, 1990: 106
Malus       Spencer, 1976: 153
Malus       Spencer, 1990: 106

Time of year - larvae: Oviposition normally takes place in young twigs at the end of May or early June; feeding continues until late August or September (Spencer, 1976: 154).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Hertfordshire (Felden), Cambridge (Kirtling), Cornwall (Truro) and Dunbartonshire (Bonhill) (Spencer, 1972b: 44).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Denmark, Norway (Spencer, 1976: 153), Belgium, Hungary, Poland, Spanish mainland and The Netherlands (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Host species unknown

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea - Links to species no longer available  
Olesicampe paludicola (Holmgren, 1860) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
Find images using Google

XHTML Validator
Last updated 10-Jul-2019 Brian Pitkin Top of page