The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Hexomyza simplicoides (Hendel, 1920)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Melanagromyza simplicoides Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7) (1918): 128
Melanagromyza simplicoides Hendel, 1920; Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 178
Melanagromyza kirgizica Rohdendorf-Holmanova, 1959. Ent. Obozr. 38: 695. [Synonymised by Spencer, 1966a: 44]
Hexomyza simplicoides (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1966. Beitr. Ent. 16: 44
Hexomyza simplicoides (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 14 (figs 5-7), 15, 118-120
Hexomyza simplicoides (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 38-9, figs 15-6
Hexomyza simplicoides (Hendel, 1920); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 80 (fig. 296), 81, 93.

Gall: An oval gall in the cortex of a twig (see Redfern et al, 2002: 433, fig. 816); several galls may coalesce round stem. Pupation internal.

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Yellowish, but the front segments are bright reddish brown (see also Redfern et al, 2002: 433, fig. 817); posterior spiracles each with three minute bulbs on short stalk (Spencer, 1972b: 15).

Adults: The adults, including the halteres, are uniformly black. Hexomyza simplicoides may be distinguished from the two other species of the genus recorded in Britain, sarothamni and simplicicoides, by the costa ending at or shortly beyond vein R4+5.

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Salix       Spencer, 1972b: 15
Salix caprea Goat Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120

Hosts elsewhere:

Salix       Spencer, 1990: 93
Salix caprea Goat Willow British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 39

Time of year - galls: April-May.

Time of year - adults: end of May or early June.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Surrey (Box Hill, Effingham and Oxshott) and Cambridgeshire (Kirtling) (Spencer, 1972b: 15), North Ebudes, South Somerset and Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe and temperate Asia, with confirmed records from Spain, Finland, Germany, Austria, Hungary, the Kirghiz Republic of the [former] U.S.S.R. (Spencer, 1976: 39), French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Salix caprea

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Sphegigaster glabrata Graham, 1969 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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