The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Galiomyza violiphaga (Hendel, 1932)
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Liriomyza violiphaga Hendel, 1932. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 260
Metopomyza violiphaga (Hendel, 1932); Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 50
Metopomyza violiphaga (Hendel, 1932); Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5 (1): 286-8
Galiomyza violiphaga (Hendel, 1932); Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 76 (fig. 279), 77, 92, 402.

Leaf-miner: Large, conspicuous, upper-surface, whitish blotch, preceded by a short, in the end generally overrun, corridor. Most frass in fine grains; part of it lies in a broad band in the mine, that ends near the point where the larva has left the mine for pupation. Exit slit in upper epidermis. Frequently several larvae in a common mine (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1937) and Hering (1957a). Posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Orange; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs, one being distinctly elongated (Spencer, 1976: 288).

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Viola       Spencer, 1972b: 122

Hosts elsewhere:

Viola       Spencer, 1990: 92
Viola       Spencer, 1976: 288
Viola ambigua     Bladmineerders van Europa
Viola biflora Alpine Yellow-violet   Bladmineerders van Europa
Viola mirabilis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Viola reichenbachiana Early Dog-violet British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Viola silvatica     Spencer, 1976: 288
Viola tricolor Wild Pansy British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: July-August (Hering, 1957).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Kent, Surrey, Breconshire, and Perth (Spencer, 1972b); East Kent and Merionethshire (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Fauna Europaea).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in western Europe including Austria, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland (Spencer, 1976: 288) and French mainland (Fauna Europaea).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Viola reichenbachiana, Viola tricolor

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea - Links to species no longer available  
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Apodesmia similis (Sz├ępligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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