miner: Makes a full depth blotch mine in which the black frass may be visible. May be several mines in the leaf and the larva may exit one leaf and mine in another (British
Large, full depth blotch, starting with a short corridor, that often follows the leaf margin. Often 5-12 mines in a leaf. Mines mainly in the lower leaves. The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Mines of Pseudodineura enslini on Trollius europaeus
Image: © John Bratton (British
The larvae of sawflies have a head capsule, chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles, six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (although they may be reduced) (see examples).
The pupae of sawflies have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths.
The adult is illustrated in ECatSym - Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
Time of year - larvae: May-June (Hering, 1957a).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
Full synonymy and references are listed in ECatSym - Electronic World Catalog of Symphyta.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Eidda Pasture, Caernarvonshire (British leafminers); Britain (van Achterberg
in Fauna Europaea).
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Latvia,
Poland, Romania, Sweden and Switzerland (van Achterberg in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: