Leaf-miner: Egg at the upperside of the leaf. The mine is an extremely long
corridor, often following the midrib or the leaf margin, with frass
in a narrow central line, widening in te end into an irregular elongate
blotch. Corridor sides somehwat irregularly scalloped out, especially
towards the end. The larva may move, all the while mining, to another,
even a third, leaf by way of the petioles and stem. Therefore one
leaf may have only a narrow corridor, another a blotch. Pupation
external. Mines mainly in the lowest leaves, difficult to find (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The leaves are stained purple as the larva mines. It usually mines two or three leaves, via the petiole and stem. The mines are long, with linear frass and irregular margins (British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Bright yellow, head light brown (Emmet, 1983a; Klimesch, 1948a);
see Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) for a description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
July to October (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including North Hampshire (VC12),
South Wiltshire (VC8), Stafford and Warwickshire (NBN
Gateway). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia - North, Slovakia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: