Leaf-miner: A chestnut brown blotch on upper side of leaf, frass in concentric
red, upper-surface blotch, not preceded by a corridor. Almost all
frass is ejected through a slit in the upper epidermis, at the margin
of the mine. Characteristic is a pattern of fine concentric lines
around the site of oviposition. Rather soon the larva begins to
make a flat saucer-shaped cocoon. During feeding pauses it rests
here in a horse-shoe position (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The yellow larva is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - November (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Denbighshire (VC50), East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36),
Merionethshire (VC48), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40),
South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
North Aegean Is., Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia -
East, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: