Leaf-miner: A gallery leading to a blotch (British
either at upper- or lowerside of the leaf. The mine is a corridor;
the first part is rather straight and narrow, and often follows
a vein for some length; the second part is much broader, sometimes
almost a blotch. In the first part of the mine the frass lies in
a more or less uninterrupted central line that does not occupy the
full with of the gallery; in the second part the frass pattern is
very variable, ranging from a narrow central line to a broad band
(Bladmineerders van Europa). The mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
larva is greenish-yellow, head brown (British
leafminers) and described as Light yellow and illustrated in
Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: End of June - July, September - October (British
of year - adults: May and again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widepread in England, where
it is fairly common except in the west (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44),
Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Middlesex (VC21),
Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32),
Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). There are records from Scotland and Wales, but
very few (UKMoths).
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Dodecanese Is., Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany,
Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia
- Central and East, Sardinia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also
recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: