Leaf-miner: A long sinuous gallery with narrow frass-line (British
generally at the leaf upper side, not especially close to a vein.
From there a long and slender corridor starts, with frass usually
in a narrow central line. The corridor often crosses itself, but
rarely a thick vein (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellow, head pale brown (British
larva is also described and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: May - June, August - September (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96), Glamorganshire (VC41), Haddington,
Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35),
North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Northwest,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine
and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: